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Pregnant or Parenting Students

Discrimination Based on Pregnancy and Related Conditions

Since 1975, Title IX Regulations have protected students and employees from discrimination based on pregnancy, childbirth, false pregnancy, termination of pregnancy, or recovery from any of these conditions. Title IX also prohibits schools from applying any rule related to a student’s parental, family, or marital status that treats students differently based on their sex.  

The Title IX regulations state that recipients of federal funds "shall not apply any rule concerning a student's actual or potential parental, family or marital status which treats students differently on the basis of sex... [and] shall not discriminate against any student, or exclude any student from its education programs or activity, including any class or extracurricular activity, on the basis of such student's pregnancy, childbirth, false pregnancy, termination of pregnancy or recovery therefrom, unless the student requests voluntarily to participate in a separate portion of the program or activity of the recipient."

Medical and Other Benefits and Services

Schools and districts must treat pregnancy, childbirth, false pregnancy, termination of pregnancy, and recovery therefrom the same as any other temporary disability with respect to any hospital or medical benefit, service, plan, or policy for students.

Medical Leave

If a school/district does not have a leave policy for its students, or if a student does not qualify for leave under the current policy, the school/district shall treat pregnancy, childbirth, false pregnancy, termination of pregnancy and recovery therefrom as a justification for a leave of absence for as long a period of time as is deemed medically necessary by the student's physician.  After the student returns, the student shall be reinstated to the status which she held when the leave began.


For more information, see:


To ensure a pregnant student’s access to its educational program, when necessary, a school must make adjustments to the regular program that are reasonable and responsive to the student’s temporary pregnancy status. Schools/districts are required to provide the same special services to pregnant students provided to students with temporary medical conditions.  For example, a school might be required to provide a larger desk, allow frequent trips to the bathroom, or permit temporary access to elevators.

For more information, see:

2024 Final Regulations 

On April 19, 2024, the U.S. Department of Education released the 2024 Title IX Regulations.  These final regulations expand the supports for pregnant and parenting students.  The final regulations go into effect on Aug 1, 2024, and apply to complaints of sex discrimination, including alleged discrimination based on pregnancy and related conditions that occurs on or after that date. The 2020 regulations remain in effect through July 31, 2024.  For more information:


For more information on how to support pregnant or parenting students, also see:

How to File a Complaint

Title IX complaints should be filed with the individual school or district. However, a complaint may also be filed with the U.S. Office for Civil Rights.

The Office for Civil Rights also offers mediation services.  Just select “mediation” on the Office for Civil Rights Complaint Form.

Anti-Retaliation Provision

It is unlawful to retaliate against individuals, including Title IX Coordinators, for:

  • Filing a Title IX complaint
  • Participating in a Title IX investigation, hearing or proceeding
  • Advocating for others’ Title IX rights

For questions regarding school and district obligations under Title IX, contact:

Rebekah Ottenbreit
Colorado Department of Education Office of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Education
1560 Broadway, Suite 1100
Denver, CO 80202
Phone: 303-907-9331