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Module 4 Facilitator Guide: Creating Fluent Readers

Building strong foundations: developing early literacy skills. Module 4: creating fluent readers


In this module, participants will:

  • Understand the importance of fluency in reading 
  • Define the components of fluency and its relationship to comprehension 
  • The progression of foundational skills needed to become a fluent reader, including the need for a large sight word vocabulary 
  • Understand the  consequences for children who do not become fluent and its role in creating motivated readers 
  • Become familiar with information concerning motivating students to read extensively 
  • Understand how to provide explicit instruction in fluent reading as well as strategies for fluency practice 
  • Identify how to use assistive technologies for students with serious deficits 
  • Explore the benchmarks and norming in fluency 
  • Understand how to screen, diagnose, and progress monitor fluency

Young boy smiling and holding a personal computing device in an outdoor setting

Teachers Do:

  • Detailed Module 4 Outline
  • Module 4 Resource Library

Facilitator(s) Do:

  • Graphic: Scarborough’s Reading Rope: A Groundbreaking Infographic
  • Handout 2.1 Fluency Components and Prerequisites
  • Article: Reading Fluently Does Not Mean Reading Fast
  • Handout 3.2 A Snapshot of Fluency Across Grade Levels
  • Video: Reading Fluently-1st Grader
  • Video: Reading Fluently-2nd Grader
  • Video: Reading Fluently-3rd Grader
  • Handout 3.3 Evidence-Based Strategies for Building Fluency
  • Video: Choral Reading
  • Video: Echo Reading
  • Video: Repeated Reading
  • Video: Partner Reading
  • Article: Everything You Wanted to Know about Repeated Reading
  • Site Resource: Repeated Reading with Goal Setting for Reading Fluency: Focusing on Reading Quality Rather Than Reading Speed

  • Handout 3.5: Partner Reading
  • Handout 3.6 Partner Reading Action Plan
  • Video: Assistive Technology for Dyslexia: One Mother’s Story
  • Handout 4.2 Creating Fluent Readers
  • Handout 4.1 Oral Reading Fluency Norms
  • Video: Mclass with Dibels 8th Edition: Oral Reading Fluency
  • Site: Student Achievement Partners (August 2014). Fluency resources, grades K-12
  • Handout 4.2: Fluency Assessment Flow Chart
  • Graphic: Progress Monitoring Graphic
  • Handout 4.3 Fluency Goal Sheet
  • Handout 4.4 Assessing Prosody
  • Handout 4.5 Instructional Options for Non-Prosodic Readers
  • Handout 4.6 Procedures for Marking for Fluency or Accuracy Measures
  • Handout 4.7 Practice Marking Passages for Fluency and Accuracy


Essential Questions:

  • How does understanding the progression of foundational skills and a large sight word vocabulary impact fluency?
  • How do the consequences of disfluency and information concerning motivating students to read extensively inform your classroom instructional practices? What pivots might you consider making?
  • What role does assessment play in screening, identifying, and progress monitoring fluency, and how does this impact classroom instruction?
  • How do the concepts of fluency relate to comprehension and your understanding of the importance of fluency in reading?

Reflection Questions:

  • Are there any methods/practices that you currently implement but can enhance? If so, how?
  • Are there any methods/strategies that you plan to embed in your instruction? If so, which ones? How will you do so?



Curriculum Dive:

Use the Curriculum Evaluation Tool or the Curriculum Dive - Notetaking Template (DOCX) to review your primary literacy instructional resources. For this module, review your resources using the section with the heading “Fluency.”

Student Profile:

 In the previous session, teachers used the Student Profile Template (DOCX) to analyze the student’s data and observations of the student’s abilities in phonics and advanced word study (if applicable). In this session, teachers should continue using student assessment and observation data to analyze the student’s strengths and weaknesses in fluency skills.


The Implementation phase of the Facilitator guide is to target important instructional practices and ensure that these practices are in place or progress throughout K-3 classrooms.

Features of Effective Fluency Instruction: self-assessment: 

 Using the Features of Effective Instruction Checklist (DOCX) and the Fluency section in the Leader Look For Document (DOCX) document, have teachers reflect on their own instructional practices. First, have teachers consider their progress in terms of effective instructional practices. Has there been improvement in areas previously identified for focus? 

In terms of fluency instruction: What do they do regularly and well? What features may they be overlooking or need development? Have each teacher mark the areas in fluency instruction in which they consider themselves effective, as well as features they wish to improve upon. Ask teachers to highlight the area they want or need to improve on the most in regards to fluency. This area can be a focal point for coach or administrator observations.

Features of Effective Instruction: plan for observations (For coaches/administrators)

Between now and the next session, focus coaching or observation cycles on effective instructional practices and fluency instruction. Observe each K-3 teacher using the Features of Effective Instruction Checklist (DOCX) and the Fluency section in this Leader Look For Document (DOCX).