- Explicit instruction of expectations/skills
- Teach the student exactly what is expected using examples and non-examples to illustrate appropriate from inappropriate behaviors. This often involves defining behaviors, role plays, and feedback during initial intervention implementation as well as regularly throughout.
- Structured prompts for appropriate behavior
- This might include reminders of expected behaviors, visuals or cues on a point card.
- Opportunities to practice the skills
- Skill practice should be embedded throughout the school day and across relevant environments (and not just in an isolated instructional/skills group setting).
- Frequent feedback to the student
- Students should receive positive and corrective feedback at regular intervals throughout the school day on the expectations or skills being targeted (usually at least once per period or subject area). Feedback should be contingent and specific and focus on positive interactions.
- Mechanism to fade support
- This often involves reducing the number of times the student is prompted or receives feedback about a skill. It can also involve increasing the interval between delivery of acknowledgements or rewards associated with success.
- Communication with students’ parents
- Efforts to include or communicate with parents might include brief notes home on a daily or weekly basis, phone calls, emails, student success post card mailers or other quick, culturally relevant communication forms.
Source: Harlacher & Rodriguez, in press; Adapted from Anderson & Borgmeier, 2010.