# 2020 Colorado Academic Standards Online

Use the options below to create customized views of the 2020 Colorado Academic Standards. For all standards resources, see the Office of Standards and Instructional Support.

**Current selections are shown below (maximum of five)**

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*Content Area:* Reading, Writing and Communicating
// *Grade Level:* Fifth Grade
// *Standard Category:* All Standards Categories

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*Content Area:* Mathematics
// *Grade Level:* Fifth Grade
// *Standard Category:* All Standards Categories

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*Content Area:* Science
// *Grade Level:* Fifth Grade
// *Standard Category:* All Standards Categories

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*Content Area:* Social Studies
// *Grade Level:* Fifth Grade
// *Standard Category:* All Standards Categories

**Reading, Writing and Communicating**

**Fifth Grade, Standard 1. Oral Expression and Listening**

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- 1. Collaborate effectively as group members or leaders who listen actively and respectfully; pose thoughtful questions, acknowledge the ideas of others; and contribute ideas to further the group’s attainment of an objective.

1. Collaborate in discussions that serve various purposes and address various situations.

*Students Can:*

- Listen to others' ideas and form their own opinions.
- Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on
*grade 5 topics and texts*, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. (CCSS: SL.5.1)- Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion. (CCSS: SL.5.1a)
- Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles. (CCSS: SL.5.1b)
- Pose and respond to specific questions by making comments that contribute to the discussion and elaborate on the remarks of others. (CCSS: SL.5.1c)
- Review the key ideas expressed and draw conclusions in light of information and knowledge gained from the discussions. (CCSS: SL.5.1d)

- Summarize a written text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
- Summarize the points a speaker makes and explain how each claim is supported by reasons and evidence. (CCSS: SL.5.3)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

- Recognize how members of a community rely on each other, considering personal contributions as applicable. (Civic/Interpersonal Skills, Collaboration/Teamwork)
- Consider purpose, formality of context and audience, and distinct cultural norms when planning content, mode, delivery, and expression. (Civic/Interpersonal Skills, Communication (using information and communications technologies))
- Identify and explain multiple perspectives (cultural, global) when exploring events, ideas, issues. (Civic/Interpersonal Skills, Global/Cultural Awareness)

- How can we actively listen when working in a group?
- Why is it difficult to accept someone else's point of view?

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- 2. Deliver effective oral presentations for varied audiences and varied purposes.

2. Present to express an opinion, persuade, or explain/provide information.

*Students Can:*

- Report on a topic or text or present an opinion, sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes. (CCSS: SL.5.4)
- Use appropriate eye contact and speak clearly at an understandable pace.
- Include multimedia components (for example: graphics, sound) and visual displays in presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes. (CCSS: SL.5.5)
- Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks. (CCSS: SL.5.6)
- Adapt language as appropriate to purpose: to persuade, explain/provide information, or express an opinion.

Academic Contexts and Connections:

- Discern differences of effective and ineffective processes, communication and tasks. (Personal Skills, Personal Responsibility)
- Consider purpose, formality of context and audience, and distinct cultural norms when planning content, mode, delivery, and expression. (Civic/Interpersonal Skills, Communication (using information and communications technologies))
- State a position and reflect on possible objections to, assumptions and implications of the position. (Civic/Interpersonal Skills, Character)

- How is eye contact used to persuade others who are listening?
- When is it important to use volume as a tool in communication?
- Why is it difficult to accept someone else's point of view?
- What can speakers do to make people want to listen to what they have to say?
- How does body language tell a speaker that he/she is having the desired effect on the audience?

**Reading, Writing and Communicating**

**Fifth Grade, Standard 2. Reading for All Purposes**

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- 3. Read a wide range of literary texts to build knowledge and to better understand the human experience.

1. Apply strategies to interpret and analyze various types of literary texts.

*Students Can:*

- Use pre-reading strategies, such as identifying a purpose for reading, generating questions to answers while reading, previewing sections of texts and activating prior knowledge.
- Use Key Ideas and Details to:
- Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. (CCSS: RL.5.1)
- Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text. (CCSS: RL.5.2)
- Compare and contrast two or more character’s points of view, settings, or events in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (for example: how characters interact). (CCSS: RL.5.3)

- Use Craft and Structure to:
- Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative language such as metaphors and similes. (CCSS: RL.5.4)
- Explain how a series of chapters, scenes, or stanzas fits together to provide the overall structure of a particular story, drama, or poem. (CCSS: RL.5.5)
- Describe how a narrator’s or speaker’s point of view influences how events are described. (CCSS: RL.5.6)
- Locate information to support opinions, predictions, inferences, and identification of the author’s message or theme.

- Use Integration of Knowledge and Ideas to:
- Analyze how visual and multimedia elements contribute to the meaning, tone, or beauty of a text (for example: graphic novel, multimedia presentation of fiction, folktale, myth, and poem). (CCSS: RL.5.7)
- Compare and contrast stories in the same genre (for example: mysteries and adventure stories) on their approaches to similar themes and topics. (CCSS: RL.5.9)
- Use knowledge of literary devices (such as imagery, rhythm, foreshadowing, and simple metaphors) to understand and respond to text.

- Use Range of Reading and Complexity of Text to:
- By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 4-5 text complexity band independently and proficiently. (CCSS: RL.5.10)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

- Demonstrate flexibility, imagination, and inventiveness in taking on tasks and activities. (Entrepreneurial Skills, Informed Risk Taking)
- Identify and explain multiple perspectives (cultural, global) when exploring events, ideas, issues. (Civic/Interpersonal Skills, Global/Cultural Awareness)
- Ask questions to develop further personal understanding. (Professional Skills, Self-Advocacy)

- How do readers adjust reading strategies to better understand different texts?
- How are literary texts similar, and how are they different?
- Why does point of view matter? How does it contribute to conflict? How can understanding point of view reduce conflict?
- How do the visual and/or multimedia elements contribute to the meaning of a text?

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- 4. Read a wide range of informational texts to build knowledge and to better understand the human experience.

2. Apply strategies to interpret and analyze various types of informational texts.

*Students Can:*

- Use Key Ideas and Details to:
- Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. (CCSS: RI.5.1)
- Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text. (CCSS: RI.5.2)
- Explain the relationships or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text based on specific information in the text. (CCSS: RI.5.3)
- Distinguish between fact and opinion, providing support for judgments made

- Use Craft and Structure to:
- Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a
*grade 5 topic or subject area*. (CCSS: RI.5.4) - Compare and contrast the overall structure (for example: chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in two or more texts. (CCSS: RI.5.5)
- Analyze multiple accounts of the same event or topic, noting important similarities and differences in the point of view they represent. (CCSS: RI.5.6)
- Use informational text features (such as bold type, headings, graphic organizers, numbering schemes, glossary) and text structures to organize or categorize information, to answer questions, or to perform specific tasks

- Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a
- Use Integration of Knowledge and Ideas to:
- Draw on information from multiple print or digital sources, demonstrating the ability to locate an answer to a question quickly or to solve a problem efficiently. (CCSS: RI.5.7)
- Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point(s). (CCSS: RI.5.8)
- Integrate information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably. (CCSS: RI.5.9)

- Use Range of Reading and Complexity of Text to:
- By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 4–5 text complexity band independently and proficiently. (CCSS: RI.5.10)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

- Demonstrate flexibility, imagination, and inventiveness in taking on tasks and activities. (Entrepreneurial Skills, Informed Risk Taking)
- Identify and explain multiple perspectives (cultural, global) when exploring events, ideas, issues. (Civic/Interpersonal Skills, Global/Cultural Awareness)
- Articulate the most effective options to access information needed for a specific purpose. (Professional Skills, Information Literacy)

- How and when do readers adjust reading strategies to better understand different types of text?
- What text features are most helpful and why? How do text features help readers access information?
- Why do authors use specific text features to convey a message?
- Why is it important to draw on information from multiple resources?

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- 5. Understand how language functions in different contexts, command a variety of word-learning strategies to assist comprehension, and make effective choices for meaning or style when writing and speaking.

3. Apply knowledge of word meanings (morphology) and word relationships to determine the meaning of unknown words in and out of context.

*Students Can:*

- Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. (CCSS.RF.5.3)
- Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (for example, roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context. (CCSS: RF.5.3a)

- Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. (CCSS: RF.5.4)
- Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding. (CCSS: RF.5.4a)
- Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression. (CCSS: RF.5.4b)
- Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary. (CCSS: RF.5.4c)

- Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. (CCSS.L.5.3)
- Expand, combine, and reduce sentences for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style. (CCSS.L.5.3.a)
- Compare and contrast the varieties of English (for example:
*dialects*,*registers*) used in stories, dramas, or poems. (CCSS.L.5.3.b)

- Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 5 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. (CCSS: L.5.4)
- Use context (for example: cause/effect relationships and comparisons in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. (CCSS: L.5.4a)
- Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (for example:
*photograph*,*photosynthesis*). (CCSS: L.5.4b) - Consult reference materials (for example, dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases. (CCSS: L.5.4.c)

- Read and identify the meaning of words with sophisticated prefixes and suffixes.
- Apply knowledge of derivational suffixes that change the part of speech of the base word (for example
*active*and*activity*). - Infer meaning of words using structural analysis, context, and knowledge of multiple meanings.
- Read and identify the meaning of roots and related word families in which the pronunciation of the root does not change.
- Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. (CCSS.L.5.5)
- Interpret figurative language, including similes and metaphors, in context. (CCSS.L.5.5.a)
- Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs. (CCSS.L.5.5.b)
- Use the relationship between particular words (for example: synonyms, antonyms, homographs) to better understand each of the words. (CCSS.L.5.5.c)

- Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal contrast, addition, and other logical relationships (for example:
*however*,*although*,*nevertheless*,*similarly*,*moreover*,*in addition*). (CCSS.L.5.6)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

- Investigate to form hypotheses, make observations, and draw conclusions. (Entrepreneurial Skills, Inquiry/Analysis)
- Discern differences of effective and ineffective processes, communication and tasks. (Personal Skills, Personal Responsibility)
- Ask questions to develop further personal understanding. (Professional Skills, Self-Advocacy)

- How does our understanding morphology help us effectively decode and understand multisyllabic words?
- How might context clues support us in understanding an unknown word?
- What is the difference between literary and figurative language?

**Reading, Writing and Communicating**

**Fifth Grade, Standard 3. Writing and Composition**

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1. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information, for a variety of purposes and audiences.

*Students Can:*

- Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which ideas are logically grouped to support the writer’s purpose. (CCSS: W.5.1a)
- Provide logically ordered reasons that are supported by facts and details. (CCSS: W.5.1b)
- Link opinion and reasons using words, phrases, and clauses (for example:
*consequently*,*specifically*). (CCSS: W.5.1c) - Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented. (CCSS: W.5.1d)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

- Regulate reactions to differing perspective. (Personal Skills, Adaptability/Flexibility)
- Identify and explain multiple perspectives (cultural, global), when exploring events, ideas, issues. (Civic/Interpersonal Skills, Global/Cultural Awareness)
- State a position and reflect on possible objections to, assumptions and implications of the position. (Civic/Interpersonal Skills, Character)

- What is the purpose of writing for different audiences?
- How do we select evidence to best support our claims?

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- 7. Craft informational/explanatory texts using techniques specific to the genre.

2. Write informative/explanatory texts that provide a clear focus and the use of text features to group related information on a well-developed topic, using precise language and domain-specific vocabulary.

*Students Can:*

- Introduce a topic clearly, provide a general observation and focus, and group related information logically; include formatting (for example: headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. (CCSS: W.5.2a)
- Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic. (CCSS: W.5.2b)
- Link ideas within and across categories of information using words, phrases, and clauses (for example:
*in contrast*,*especially*). (CCSS: W.5.2c) - Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. (CCSS: W.5.2d)
- Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented. (CCSS: W.5.2e)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

- Define the problem using a variety of strategies. (Entrepreneurial Skills, Critical Thinking/Problem Solving)
- Investigate to form hypotheses make observations, and draw conclusions. (Entrepreneurial Skills, Inquiry/Analysis)
- Articulate the most effective options to access information needed for a specific purpose. (Professional Skills, Information Literacy)

- What is the purpose of writing for different audiences?
- How do we write to effectively explain complex topics?
- How do we use text features to convey meaning?

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3. Write engaging, real or imagined narratives using literary techniques, character development, sensory and descriptive details, and a variety of transition words to signal a clear sequence of events.

*Students Can:*

- Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally. (CCSS: W.5.3a)
- Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, description, and pacing, to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations. (CCSS: W.5.3b)
- Use a variety of transitional words, phrases, and clauses to manage the sequence of events. (CCSS: W.5.3c)
- Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely. (CCSS: W.5.3d)
- Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events. (CCSS: W.5.3e)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

- Appropriately express one's own emotions, thoughts, and values and identify how they influence behavior. (Personal Skills, Self-Awareness)
- Discern differences of effective and ineffective processes, communication and tasks. (Personal Skills, Personal Responsibility)
- Consider purpose, formality of context and audience, and distinct cultural norms when planning content, mode, delivery, and expression. (Civic/Interpersonal Skills, Communication (using information and communications technologies))

- How does a writer effectively structure a narrative?
- How do transition words help readers?

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- 9. Demonstrate mastery of their own writing process with clear, coherent, and error-free polished products.

4. Apply understanding of the conventions of Standard English grammar, usage, and mechanics to make meaning clear and to strengthen style.

*Students Can:*

- Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (CCSS: L.5.1)
- Explain the function of conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections in general and their function in particular sentences. (CCSS: L.5.1a)
- Form and use the perfect (for example: I
*had walked*; I*have walked*; I*will have walked*) verb tenses. (CCSS: L.5.1b) - Use verb tense to convey various times, sequences, states, and conditions. (CCSS: L.5.1c)
- Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense. (CCSS: L.5.1d)
- Use correlative conjunctions (for example:
*either/or*,*neither/nor*). (CCSS: L.5.1e) - Expand, combine, and reduce sentences for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style. (CCSS: L.5.3a)

- Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (CCSS: L.5.2)
- Use punctuation to separate items in a series. (CCSS: L.5.2a)
- Use a comma to separate an introductory element from the rest of the sentence. (CCSS: L.5.2b)
- Use a comma to set off the words yes and no (for example:
*Yes, thank you*), to set off a tag question from the rest of the sentence (for example:*It’s true, isn’t it?*), and to indicate direct address (for example:*Is that you, Steve?*). (CCSS: L.5.2c) - Use underlining, quotation marks, or italics to indicate titles of works. (CCSS: L.5.2d)
- Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed. (CCSS: L.5.2e)

- Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (CCSS: W.5.4)
- With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. (CCSS: W.5.5)
- With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others. (adapted from CCSS: W.5.6)
- Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences. (CCSS.W.5.10)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

- Set goals and develop strategies to remain focused on learning goals. (Personal Skills, Perseverance/Resilience)
- Develop and utilize basic task and time management strategies effectively. (Professional Skills, Task/Time Management)
- Articulate the most effective options to access information needed for a specific purpose. (Professional Skills, Information Literacy)

- How can the use of correct vocabulary, grammar, usage, and mechanics add clarity to writing?
- How can various tools help a writer edit and revise written work?
- What do authors do to ensure they have a topic and supporting details?
- How do graphic organizers or planning guides increase the effectiveness of a writer?

**Reading, Writing and Communicating**

**Fifth Grade, Standard 4. Research Inquiry and Design**

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- 10. Gather information from a variety of sources; analyze and evaluate its quality and relevance; and use it ethically to answer complex questions.

1. Research to locate, summarize, synthesize and document information from print and digital sources, and communicate findings appropriately.

*Students Can:*

- Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic. (CCSS: W.5.7)
- Summarize and support key ideas
- Demonstrate comprehension of information with supporting logical and valid inferences.
- Develop and present a brief (oral or written) research report with clear focus and supporting detail for an intended audience.

- Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work, and provide a list of sources. (CCSS: W.5.8)
- Develop relevant supporting visual information (for example: charts, maps, graphs, photo evidence, models).
- Provide documentation of sources used in a grade-appropriate format.

- Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (CCSS: W.5.9)
- Apply
*grade 5 Reading standards*to literature (for example: “Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or a drama, drawing on specific details in the text [for example: how characters interact]”). (CCSS: W.5.9a) - Apply
*grade 5 Reading standards*to informational texts (for example: “Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point[s]”). (CCSS: W.5.9b)

- Apply

Academic Contexts and Connections:

- Investigate to form hypotheses make observations, and draw conclusions. (Entrepreneurial Skills, Inquiry/Analysis)
- Communicate information through the use of technologies. (Professional Skills, Use Information and Communications Technologies)

**Mathematics**

**Fifth Grade, Standard 1. Number and Quantity**

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- MP2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
- MP7. Look for and make use of structure.

5.NBT.A. Number & Operations in Base Ten: Understand the place value system.

*Students Can:*

- Recognize that in a multi-digit number, a digit in one place represents \(10\) times as much as it represents in the place to its right and \(\frac{1}{10}\) of what it represents in the place to its left. (CCSS: 5.NBT.A.1)
- Explain patterns in the number of zeros of the product when multiplying a number by powers of \(10\), and explain patterns in the placement of the decimal point when a decimal is multiplied or divided by a power of \(10\). Use whole-number exponents to denote powers of \(10\). (CCSS: 5.NBT.A.2)
- Read, write, and compare decimals to thousandths. (CCSS: 5.NBT.A.3)
- Read and write decimals to thousandths using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form, e.g., \(347.392 = 3 \times 100 + 4 × 10 + 7 \times 1 + 3 \times \frac{1}{10} + 9 \times \frac{1}{100} + 2 \times \frac{1}{1000}\). (CCSS: 5.NBT.A.3.a)
- Compare two decimals to thousandths based on meanings of the digits in each place, using \(>\), \(=\), and \(<\) symbols to record the results of comparisons. (CCSS: 5.NBT.A.3.b)

- Use place value understanding to round decimals to any place. (CCSS: 5.NBT.A.4)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

*
Colorado Essential Skills and Mathematical Practices:
*

- Persist in making sense of how fractions can represent decimal place values. (Personal Skills: Perseverance/Resilience)
- Abstract place value reasoning with whole numbers to decimal numbers. (MP2)
- See the structure of place value as not just a making of tens with greater place values, but a making of tenths with lesser place values. (MP7)

- How can you show visually the relationships between \(25\), \(2.5\) and \(0.25\)? How can you show these relationships with equations?
- Can all decimals be written as fractions? Why or why not?

- This expectation represents major work of the grade.
- In Grade 4, students generalize place value understanding for multi-digit whole numbers, use decimal notation for fractions, and compare decimal fractions.
- In Grade 5, this expectation connects with performing operations with multi-digit whole numbers and operations with decimals to hundredths.
- In Grade 6, students apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions and develop fluency with decimal operations.

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- MP3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
- MP5. Use appropriate tools strategically.
- MP7. Look for and make use of structure.

5.NBT.B. Number & Operations in Base Ten: Perform operations with multi-digit whole numbers and with decimals to hundredths.

*Students Can:*

- Fluently multiply multi-digit whole numbers using the standard algorithm. (CCSS: 5.NBT.B.5)
- Find whole-number quotients of whole numbers with up to four-digit dividends and two-digit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models. (CCSS: 5.NBT.B.6)
- Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals to hundredths, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used. (CCSS: 5.NBT.B.7)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

*
Colorado Essential Skills and Mathematical Practices:
*

- Defend calculations with explanations based on properties of operations, equations, drawings, arrays, and other models. (MP3)
- Use models and drawings to represent and compute with whole numbers and decimals, illustrating an understanding of place value. (MP5)
- Use the structure of place value to organize computation with whole numbers and decimals. (MP7)

- We sometimes use arrays and area models to model multiplication and division of whole numbers. Do these models work for decimal fractions, too? Why or why not?
- How is computation with decimal fractions similar to and different from computation with whole numbers?

- This expectation represents major work of the grade.
- In Grade 4, students use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic.
- This expectation connects with other ideas in Grade 5: (a) understanding the place value system for decimals, (b) using equivalent fractions as a strategy, (c) applying and extending previous understandings of multiplication and division, and (d) converting like measurement units within a given measurement system.
- In Grade 6, students compute fluently with multi-digit numbers and find common factors and multiples.

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- MP3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
- MP6. Attend to precision.
- MP7. Look for and make use of structure.

5.NF.A. Number & Operations—Fractions: Use equivalent fractions as a strategy to add and subtract fractions.

*Students Can:*

- Add and subtract fractions with unlike denominators (including mixed numbers) by replacing given fractions with equivalent fractions in such a way as to produce an equivalent sum or difference of fractions with like denominators.
*For example, \(\frac{2}{3} + \frac{5}{4} = \frac{8}{12} + \frac{15}{12} = \frac{23}{12}\). (In general, \(\frac{a}{b} + \frac{c}{d} = \frac{ad + bc}{bd}\).)*(CCSS: 5.NF.A.1) - Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole, including cases of unlike denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem. Use benchmark fractions and number sense of fractions to estimate mentally and assess the reasonableness of answers.
*For example, recognize an incorrect result \(\frac{2}{5} + \frac{1}{2} = \frac{3}{7}\), by observing that \(\frac{3}{7} < \frac{1}{2}\).*(CCSS: 5.NF.A.2)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

*
Colorado Essential Skills and Mathematical Practices:
*

- Construct viable arguments about the addition and subtraction of fractions with reasoning rooted in the need for like-sized parts. (MP3)
- Assess the reasonableness of fraction calculations by estimating results using benchmark fractions and number sense. (MP6)
- Look for structure in the multiplicative relationship between unlike denominators when creating equivalent fractions. (MP7)

- It is useful to round decimals when estimating sums and differences of decimal numbers. What would “rounding fractions” look like when estimating sums and differences of fractions?
- Why don’t we add or subtract the denominators when we are working with fractions?

- This expectation represents major work of the grade.
- In Grade 4, students add and subtract fractions and mixed numbers with like denominators, recognize and generate equivalent fractions, and compare fractions with different numerators and denominators.
- In Grade 5, this expectation connects with multi-digit whole number operations, operations with decimals to hundredths, and representing and interpreting data.
- In Grade 6, students reason about and solve one-variable equations and inequalities, and in Grade 7, apply and extend previous understandings of operations with fractions to add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational numbers.

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- MP5. Use appropriate tools strategically.
- MP6. Attend to precision.
- MP7. Look for and make use of structure.

5.NF.B. Number & Operations—Fractions: Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division.

*Students Can:*

- Interpret a fraction as division of the numerator by the denominator (\(\frac{a}{b} = a \div b\)). Solve word problems involving division of whole numbers leading to answers in the form of fractions or mixed numbers, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem.
*For example, interpret \(\frac{3}{4}\) as the result of dividing \(3\) by \(4\), noting that \(\frac{3}{4}\) multiplied by \(4\) equals \(3\), and that when \(3\) wholes are shared equally among \(4\) people each person has a share of size \(\frac{3}{4}\). If \(9\) people want to share a \(50\)-pound sack of rice equally by weight, how many pounds of rice should each person get? Between what two whole numbers does your answer lie?*(CCSS: 5.NF.B.3) - Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction or whole number by a fraction. (CCSS: 5.NF.B.4)
- Interpret the product \(\frac{a}{b} \times q\) as a parts of a partition of \(q\) into \(b\) equal parts; equivalently, as the result of a sequence of operations \(a \times q \div b\).
*For example, use a visual fraction model to show \(\frac{2}{3} \times 4 = \frac{8}{3}\), and create a story context for this equation. Do the same with \(\frac{2}{3} \times \frac{4}{5} = \frac{8}{15}\). (In general, \(\frac{a}{b} \times \frac{c}{d} = \frac{ac}{bd}\).)*(CCSS: 5.NF.B.4.a) - Find the area of a rectangle with fractional side lengths by tiling it with unit squares of the appropriate unit fraction side lengths, and show that the area is the same as would be found by multiplying the side lengths. Multiply fractional side lengths to find areas of rectangles, and represent fraction products as rectangular areas. (CCSS: 5.NF.B.4.b)
- Interpret multiplication as scaling (resizing), by: (CCSS: 5.NF.B.5)
- Comparing the size of a product to the size of one factor on the basis of the size of the other factor, without performing the indicated multiplication. (CCSS: 5.NF.B.5.a)
- Explaining why multiplying a given number by a fraction greater than \(1\) results in a product greater than the given number (recognizing multiplication by whole numbers greater than \(1\) as a familiar case); explaining why multiplying a given number by a fraction less than \(1\) results in a product smaller than the given number; and relating the principle of fraction equivalence \(\frac{a}{b} = \frac{n \times a}{n \times b}\) to the effect of multiplying \(\frac{a}{b}\) by \(1\). (CCSS: 5.NF.B.5.b)

- Solve real-world problems involving multiplication of fractions and mixed numbers, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem. (CCSS: 5.NF.B.6)
- Apply and extend previous understandings of division to divide unit fractions by whole numbers and whole numbers by unit fractions. (Students able to multiply fractions in general can develop strategies to divide fractions in general, by reasoning about the relationship between multiplication and division. But division of a fraction by a fraction is not a requirement at this grade.) (CCSS: 5.NF.B.7)
- Interpret division of a unit fraction by a non-zero whole number, and compute such quotients.
*For example, create a story context for \(\frac{1}{3} \div 4\), and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient. Use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that \(\frac{1}{3} \div 4 = \frac{1}{12}\) because \(\frac{1}{12} \times 4 = \frac{1}{3}\).*(CCSS: 5.NF.B.7.a) - Interpret division of a whole number by a unit fraction, and compute such quotients.
*For example, create a story context for \(4 \div \frac{1}{5}\), and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient. Use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that \(4 \div \frac{1}{5} = 20\) because \(20 \times \frac{1}{5} = 4\).*(CCSS: 5.NF.B.7.b) - Solve real-world problems involving division of unit fractions by non-zero whole numbers and division of whole numbers by unit fractions, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem.
*For example, how much chocolate will each person get if \(3\) people share \(\frac{1}{2}\) lb of chocolate equally? How many \(\frac{1}{3}\)-cup servings are in \(2\) cups of raisins?*(CCSS: 5.NF.B.7.c)

- Interpret division of a unit fraction by a non-zero whole number, and compute such quotients.

- Interpret the product \(\frac{a}{b} \times q\) as a parts of a partition of \(q\) into \(b\) equal parts; equivalently, as the result of a sequence of operations \(a \times q \div b\).

Academic Contexts and Connections:

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Colorado Essential Skills and Mathematical Practices:
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- Solve problems requiring calculations that scale whole numbers and fractions. (Entrepreneurial Skills: Critical Thinking/Problem Solving)
- Use fraction models and arrays to interpret and explain fraction calculations. (MP5)
- Attend carefully to the underlying unit quantities when solving problems involving multiplication and division of fractions. (MP6)
- Contrast previous understandings of multiplication modeled as equal groups to multiplication as scaling, which is necessary to understand multiplying a fraction or whole number by a fraction, and how the operation of multiplication does not always result in a product larger than both factors. (MP7)

- How can you rewrite the fraction \(\frac{5}{3}\) with an addition equation? How can you rewrite it with a multiplication equation? How does it make sense that both equations are accurate?
- If we can describe the product of \(5 \times 3\) as “three times as big as \(5\),” what does that tell us about the product of \(5 \times \frac{1}{2}\)? What about \(\frac{1}{5} \times \frac{1}{2}\)?

- This expectation represents major work of the grade.
- In previous grades, students base understanding of multiplication on its connection to addition, groups of equivalent objects, and area models. In Grade 4, students add and subtract fractions and mixed numbers with like denominators, recognize and generate equivalent fractions, and compare fractions with different numerators and denominators.
- This expectation connects with several others in Grade 5: (a) performing operations with multi-digit whole numbers and with decimals to hundredths, (b) writing and interpreting numerical expressions, and (c) representing and interpreting data.
- In Grade 6, students (a) understand ratio concepts and use ratio reasoning to solve problems, (b) apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to divide fractions by fractions, (c) reason about and solve one-variable equations and inequalities, and (d) solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, surface area, and volume.

**Mathematics**

**Fifth Grade, Standard 2. Algebra and Functions**

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5.OA.A. Operations & Algebraic Thinking: Write and interpret numerical expressions.

*Students Can:*

- Use grouping symbols (parentheses, brackets, or braces) in numerical expressions, and evaluate expressions with these symbols. (CCSS: 5.OA.A.1)
- Write simple expressions that record calculations with numbers, and interpret numerical expressions without evaluating them.
*For example, express the calculation “add \(8\) and \(7\), then multiply by \(2\)” as \(2 \times \left(8 + 7\right)\). Recognize that \(3 \times \left(18932 + 921\right)\) is three times as large as \(18932 + 921\), without having to calculate the indicated sum or product.*(CCSS: 5.OA.A.2)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

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Colorado Essential Skills and Mathematical Practices:
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- Write expressions that represent mathematical relationships between quantities. (Entrepreneurial Skills: Literacy/Writing)
- Look for structures and notation that make the order of operations clear when reading and writing mathematical expressions. (MP7)

- How can you describe the relationship between the value of \(5 \times \left(24562 + 951\right)\) and \(24562 + 951\) without making any calculations?
- Suppose we use the letter \(a\) to represent a number. Can you determine the relationship between \(4 \times a\) and \(a\) without knowing the specific number \(a\) represents?

- This expectation is in addition to the major work of the grade.
- In Grade 5, this expectation connects with applying and extending previous understandings of multiplication and division.
- In Grade 6, students compute fluently with multi-digit numbers, find common factors and multiples, and apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions. In middle and high school, students develop fluency with algebraic expressions as mathematical objects that can be used in more complex mathematical operations.

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- MP3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
- MP8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.

5.OA.B. Operations & Algebraic Thinking: Analyze patterns and relationships.

*Students Can:*

- Generate two numerical patterns using two given rules. Identify apparent relationships between corresponding terms. Form ordered pairs consisting of corresponding terms from the two patterns, and graph the ordered pairs on a coordinate plane.
*For example, given the rule “Add \(3\)” and the starting number \(0\), and given the rule “Add \(6\)” and the starting number \(0\), generate terms in the resulting sequences, and observe that the terms in one sequence are twice the corresponding terms in the other sequence. Explain informally why this is so.*(CCSS: 5.OA.B.3)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

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Colorado Essential Skills and Mathematical Practices:
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- Analyze and compare patterns. (Entrepreneurial Skills: Inquiry/Analysis)
- Reason quantitatively with patterns by relating sequences of numbers with the rule that generated them. (MP3)
- Look for repeated reasoning both within individual patterns and in mathematical relationships between pairs of patterns. (MP8)

- When you graph the corresponding terms formed by two numerical rules, how are the rules reflected in the graph?
- How does the relationship between two patterns generated by rules relate to the rules themselves?

- This expectation is in addition to major work of the grade.
- In Grade 4, students generate and analyze number or shape patterns and generalize about them.
- In Grade 6, students understand ratio concepts, use ratio reasoning to solve problems, extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions, and represent and analyze quantitative relationships between dependent and independent variables.

**Mathematics**

**Fifth Grade, Standard 3. Data, Statistics, and Probability**

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5.MD.A. Measurement & Data: Convert like measurement units within a given measurement system.

*Students Can:*

- Convert among different-sized standard measurement units within a given measurement system (e.g., convert \(5\) cm to \(0.05\) m), and use these conversions in solving multi-step, real-world problems. (CCSS: 5.MD.A.1)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

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Colorado Essential Skills and Mathematical Practices:
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- Convert measurements to solve real-world problems. (Professional Skills: Information Literacy)
- Use appropriate precision when converting measurements based on a problem’s context. (MP6)

- What is happening mathematically when we convert from centimeters to meters? What about when we convert from meters to centimeters?
- How can you use fractions to change \(53\) kilograms to grams? How can you use decimals to do this conversion?

- This expectation supports the major work of the grade.
- In Grade 4, students solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit.
- In Grade 5, this expectation connects with performing operations with multi-digit whole numbers and with decimals to hundredths.

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5.MD.B. Measurement & Data: Represent and interpret data.

*Students Can:*

- Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (\(\frac{1}{2}\), \(\frac{1}{4}\), \(\frac{1}{8}\)). Use operations on fractions for this grade to solve problems involving information presented in line plots.
*For example, given different measurements of liquid in identical beakers, find the amount of liquid each beaker would contain if the total amount in all the beakers were redistributed equally.*(CCSS: 5.MD.B.2)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

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Colorado Essential Skills and Mathematical Practices:
*

- Display fractional measurement data in line plots. (Professional Skills: Information Literacy)
- Participate in discussions of measurement data using information presented in line plots. (Civic/Interpersonal Skills: Literacy/Oral Expression and Listening)
- Strategically determine the scale of line plots to represent fractional measurements. (MP5)

- (Given a data set of fractional measurements with unlike denominators) What will you consider in deciding how to label the tick marks on the line for your line plot?

- This expectation supports the major work of the grade.
- In Grade 4, students represent and interpret data.
- In Grade 5, this expectation connects with using equivalent fractions and applying and extending previous understandings of multiplication and division.
- In Grade 6, students develop understanding of statistical variability and summarize and describe distributions.

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- MP2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
- MP5. Use appropriate tools strategically.
- MP7. Look for and make use of structure.

5.MD.C. Measurement & Data: Geometric measurement: Understand concepts of volume and relate volume to multiplication and to addition.

*Students Can:*

- Recognize volume as an attribute of solid figures and understand concepts of volume measurement. (CCSS: 5.MD.C.3)
- A cube with side length \(1\) unit, called a “unit cube,” is said to have “one cubic unit” of volume and can be used to measure volume. (CCSS: 5.MD.C.3.a)
- A solid figure which can be packed without gaps or overlaps using \(n\) unit cubes is said to have a volume of \(n\) cubic units. (CCSS: 5.MD.C.3.b)

- Measure volumes by counting unit cubes, using cubic cm, cubic in, cubic ft, and improvised units. (CCSS: 5.MD.C.4)
- Relate volume to the operations of multiplication and addition and solve real-world and mathematical problems involving volume. (CCSS: 5.MD.C.5)
- Model the volume of a right rectangular prism with whole-number side lengths by packing it with unit cubes, and show that the volume is the same as would be found by multiplying the edge lengths, equivalently by multiplying the height by the area of the base. Represent threefold whole-number products as volumes, e.g., to represent the associative property of multiplication. (CCSS: 5.MD.C.5.a)
- Apply the formulas \(V = l \times w \times h\) and \(V = b \times h\) for rectangular prisms to find volumes of right rectangular prisms with whole-number edge lengths in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems. (CCSS: 5.MD.C.5.b)
- Use the additive nature of volume to find volumes of solid figures composed of two non-overlapping right rectangular prisms by adding the volumes of the non-overlapping parts, applying this technique to solve real-world problems. (CCSS: 5.MD.C.5.c)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

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Colorado Essential Skills and Mathematical Practices:
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- Solve real-world problems involving volume. (Entrepreneurial Skills: Critical Thinking/Problem Solving)
- Make connections between the values being multiplied in a volume formula, the concept of cubic units, and the context within which volume is being calculated. (MP2)
- Use unit cubes as a tool for finding or estimating volume and compare those results with those obtained with formulas. (MP5)
- Extend the structure of two-dimensional space and the relationship between arrays and area to three-dimensional space and the relationship between layers of cubes and volume. (MP7)

- How are volume and area related in a solid figure?
- Why is multiplication used when computing the volume of a solid figure, instead of another operation?

- This expectation represents major work of the grade.
- In previous grades, students connect area to the operation of multiplication and understand how to represent area problems as multiplication equations.
- In Grade 6, students solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area of right rectangular prisms with fractional side lengths, using fractional cubic units.

**Mathematics**

**Fifth Grade, Standard 4. Geometry**

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- MP2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
- MP5. Use appropriate tools strategically.

5.G.A. Geometry: Graph points on the coordinate plane to solve real-world and mathematical problems.

*Students Can:*

- Use a pair of perpendicular number lines, called axes, to define a coordinate system, with the intersection of the lines (the origin) arranged to coincide with the \(0\) on each line and a given point in the plane located by using an ordered pair of numbers, called its coordinates. Understand that the first number indicates how far to travel from the origin in the direction of one axis, and the second number indicates how far to travel in the direction of the second axis, with the convention that the names of the two axes and the coordinates correspond (e.g., \(x\)-axis and \(x\)-coordinate, \(y\)-axis and \(y\)-coordinate). (CCSS: 5.G.A.1)
- Represent real-world and mathematical problems by graphing points in the first quadrant of the coordinate plane, and interpret coordinate values of points in the context of the situation. (CCSS: 5.G.A.2)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

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Colorado Essential Skills and Mathematical Practices:
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- Use the first quadrant of the coordinate plane to represent real-world and mathematical problems. (Entrepreneurial Skills: Critical Thinking/Problem Solving)
- Analyze and use information presented visually in a coordinate plane. (Entrepreneurial Skills: Literacy/Reading)
- Reason quantitatively about a problem by abstracting and representing the situation in the first quadrant of the coordinate plane. (MP2)
- Use the first quadrant of the coordinate plane as a tool to represent, analyze, and solve problems. (MP5)

- What are things in the real world that are designed like a coordinate plane or that use a coordinate system?
- Why are the axes of the coordinate plane made to form right angles instead of acute and obtuse angles?

- This expectation is in addition to the major work of the grade.
- In previous grades, students use number lines to represent whole and fractional number distances from zero.
- In Grade 6, students extend the number line and the coordinate plane to include negative numbers and solve real-world and mathematical problems by graphing points in all four quadrants.

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- MP3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
- MP5. Use appropriate tools strategically.
- MP7. Look for and make use of structure.

5.G.B. Geometry: Classify two-dimensional figures into categories based on their properties.

*Students Can:*

- Explain that attributes belonging to a category of two-dimensional figures also belong to all subcategories of that category.
*For example, all rectangles have four right angles and squares are rectangles, so all squares have four right angles.*(CCSS: 5.G.B.3) - Classify two-dimensional figures in a hierarchy based on properties. (CCSS: 5.G.B.4)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

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Colorado Essential Skills and Mathematical Practices:
*

- Observe and analyze attributes of two-dimensional figures to classify them. (Entrepreneurial Skills: Inquiry/Analysis)
- Critique the reasoning of others’ classifications of two-dimensional shapes. (MP3)
- Strategically use measurement tools to help improve the classification of shapes. (MP5)
- Look for and use attributes of two-dimensional shapes to classify the shapes in a hierarchy of figures. (MP7)

- How can you use the words "always," "sometimes," and "never" to develop a classification of two-dimensional figures?

**Science**

**Fifth Grade, Standard 1. Physical Science**

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- 1. Students can use the full range of science and engineering practices to make sense of natural phenomena and solve problems that require understanding structure, properties and interactions of matter.

1. Matter exists as particles that are too small to be seen; measurements of a variety of observable properties can be used to identify particular materials.

*Students Can:*

- Develop a model to describe that matter is made of particles too small to be seen. (5-PS1-1)
*(Clarification Statement: Examples of evidence supporting a model could include adding air to expand a basketball, compressing air in a syringe, dissolving sugar in water and evaporating salt water. Does not include the atomic-scale mechanism of evaporation and condensation or defining the unseen particles.)* - Make observations and measurements to identify materials based on their properties. (5-PS1-3)
*(Clarification Statement: Examples of materials to be identified could include baking soda and other powders, metals, minerals and liquids. Examples of properties could include color, hardness, reflectivity, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, response to magnetic forces and solubility; density is not intended as an identifiable property. Does not include density or distinguishing mass and weight.) (Boundary Statement: At this grade level, mass and weight are not distinguished, and no attempt is made to define the unseen particles or explain the atomic-scale mechanism of evaporation and condensation.)*

Academic Contexts and Connections:

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Colorado Essential Skills and Science and Engineering Practices:
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- Use models to describe phenomena (Developing and Using Models) (Personal: Initiative/Self-direction). (a)
- Make observations and measurements to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence for an explanation of a phenomenon (Planning and Carrying Out Investigations) (Personal: Personal responsibility). (b)

- Students can answer the question: How do particles combine to form the variety of matter one observes?
- PS1:A Structure and Properties of Matter: Matter of any type can be subdivided into particles that are too small to see, but even then the matter still exists and can be detected by other means. A model showing that gases are made from matter particles that are too small to see and are moving freely around in space can explain many observations, including the inflation and shape of a balloon and the effects of air on larger particles or objects. (a)
- PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter: Measurements of a variety of properties can be used to identify materials. (b)

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- 1. Students can use the full range of science and engineering practices to make sense of natural phenomena and solve problems that require understanding structure, properties and interactions of matter.

2. Chemical Reactions that occur when substances are mixed can be identified by the emergence of substances with different properties; the total mass remains the same.

*Students Can:*

- Measure and graph quantities to provide evidence that regardless of the type of change that occurs when heating, cooling or mixing substances, the total weight of matter is conserved. (5-PS1-2)
*(Clarification Statement: Examples of reactions or changes could include phase changes, dissolving and mixing that form new substances. Does not include distinguishing mass and weight.) (Boundary Statement: Mass and weight are not distinguished at this grade level.)* - Conduct an investigation to determine whether the mixing of two or more substances results in new substances. (5-PS1-4)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

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Colorado Essential Skills and Science and Engineering Practices:
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- Measure and graph quantities such as weight to address scientific and engineering questions and problems (Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking) (Entrepreneurial: Critical thinking/Problem solving). (a)
- Make observations and measurements to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence for an explanation of a phenomenon. (Planning and Carrying out Investigations) (b)

- Students can answer the questions: How do substances combine or change (react) to make new substances? How does one characterize and explain these reactions and make predictions about them?
- PS1:B Chemical Reactions: No matter what reaction or change in properties occurs, the total weight of the substances does not change. (a) (Boundary Statement: Mass and weight are not distinguished at this grade level). PS1: A Structure and Properties of Matter: The amount (weight) of matter is conserved when it changes form, even in transitions in which it seems to vanish. (a)
- PS1:B When two or more different substances are mixed, a new substance with different properties may be formed. (b)

- Scale, Proportion and Quantity: Standard units are used to measure and describe physical quantities such as weight, time, temperature and volume. (a)
- Scientific Knowledge to Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems: Science assumes consistent patterns in natural systems. (b)
- Cause and Effect: Cause - and - effect relationships are routinely identified, tested and used to explain change. (b)

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- 1. Students can use the full range of science and engineering practices to make sense of natural phenomena and solve problems that require understanding structure, properties and interactions of matter.

3. The gravitational force of Earth acting on an object near Earth's surface pulls that object toward the planet’s center.

*Students Can:*

- Support an argument that the gravitational force exerted by Earth on objects is directed down. (5-PS2-1)
*(Clarification Statement: “Down” is a local description of the direction that points toward the center of the spherical Earth.) (Boundary Statement: Does not include mathematical representation of gravitational force).*

Academic Contexts and Connections:

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Colorado Essential Skills and Science and Engineering Practices:
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- Support an argument with evidence, data or a model (Engaging in Argument from Evidence) (Personal: Initiative/Self-direction).

- Students can answer the question: What underlying forces explain the variety of interactions observed?
- PS2:B Types of Interactions: The gravitational force of Earth acting on an object near Earth’s surface pulls that object toward the planet’s center.

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4. The energy released from food was once energy from the sun.

*Students Can:*

- Use models to describe that energy in animals’ food (used for body repair, growth and motion and to maintain body warmth) was once energy from the sun. (5-PS3-1)
*(Clarification Statement: Examples of models could include diagrams and flowcharts.)*

Academic Contexts and Connections:

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Colorado Essential Skills and Science and Engineering Practices:
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- Use models to describe phenomena (Developing and Using Models) (Personal: Initiative/Self-direction).

- Students can answer the questions: How do food and fuel provide energy? If energy is conserved, why do people say it is produced or used?
- PS3:D Energy in Chemical Processes and Everyday Life: The energy released from food was once energy from the sun that was captured by plants in the chemical process that forms plant matter (from air and water).

**Science**

**Fifth Grade, Standard 2. Life Science**

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- 6. Students can use the full range of science and engineering practices to make sense of natural phenomena and solve problems that require understanding how living systems interact with the biotic and abiotic environment.

1. Plants acquire their material from growth chiefly from air and water.

*Students Can:*

- Support an argument that plants get the materials they need for growth chiefly from air and water. (5-LS1-1)
*(Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the idea that plant matter comes mostly from air and water, not from the soil.)*

Academic Contexts and Connections:

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Colorado Essential Skills and Science and Engineering Practices:
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- Support an argument with evidence, data or a model (Engaging in Argument from Evidence) (Personal: Initiative/Self-direction).

- Students can answer the question: How do organisms obtain and use the matter and energy they need to live and grow?
- LS1:C Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms: Plants acquire their material for growth chiefly from air and water.

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- 6. Students can use the full range of science and engineering practices to make sense of natural phenomena and solve problems that require understanding how living systems interact with the biotic and abiotic environment.

2. Matter cycles between air and soil and among plants, animals and microbes as these organisms live and die.

*Students Can:*

- Develop a model to describe the movement of matter among plants, animals, decomposers, and the environment. (5-LS2-1)
*(Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the idea that matter that is not food [air, water, decomposed materials in soil] is changed by plants into matter that is food. Examples of systems could include organisms, ecosystems, and the Earth.) (Boundary Statement: Does not include molecular explanations.)*

Academic Contexts and Connections:

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Colorado Essential Skills and Science and Engineering Practices:
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- Develop a model to describe phenomena (Developing and Using Models) (Personal: Initiative/Self-direction).
- Connections to the Nature of Science: Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena. Science explanations describe the mechanisms for natural events.

- Students can answer the questions: How do organisms interact with the living and nonliving environments to obtain matter and energy? How do matter and energy move through an ecosystem?
- LS2:A Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems: The food of almost any kind of animal can be traced back to plants. Organisms are related in food webs in which some animals eat plants for food and other animals eat the animals that eat plants. Some organisms, such as fungi and bacteria, break down dead organisms (both plants or plant parts and animals) and therefore operate as “decomposers.” Decomposition eventually restores (recycles) some materials back to the soil. Organisms can survive only in environments in which their particular needs are met. A healthy ecosystem is one in which multiple species of different types are each able to meet their needs in a relatively stable web of life. Newly introduced species can damage the balance of an ecosystem.
- LS2:B Cycles of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems: Matter cycles between the air and soil and among plants, animals and microbes as these organisms live and die. Organisms obtain gases, and water, from the environment, and release waste matter (gas, liquid or solid) back into the environment.

**Science**

**Fifth Grade, Standard 3. Earth and Space Science**

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- 9. Students can use the full range of science and engineering practices to make sense of natural phenomena and solve problems that require understanding the universe and Earth's place in it.

1. Stars range greatly in size and distance from Earth, and this can explain their relative brightness.

*Students Can:*

- Support an argument that differences in the apparent brightness of the sun compared to other stars is due to their relative distances from the Earth. (5-ESS1-1)
*(Clarification Statement: Limited to relative distances, not sizes, of stars. Does not include other factors that affect apparent brightness [such as stellar masses, age and stage].)*

Academic Contexts and Connections:

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Colorado Essential Skills and Science and Engineering Practices:
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- Support an argument with evidence, data or a model (Engaging in Argument from Evidence) (Civic/Interpersonal: Collaboration/Teamwork).

- Students can answer the question: What is the universe, and what goes on in stars?
- ESS1:A The Universe and its Stars: The sun is a star that appears larger and brighter than other stars because it is closer. Stars range greatly in their distance from Earth.

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- 9. Students can use the full range of science and engineering practices to make sense of natural phenomena and solve problems that require understanding the universe and Earth's place in it.

2. Earth’s orbit and rotation and the orbit of the moon around earth cause observable patterns.

*Students Can:*

- Represent data in graphical displays to reveal patterns of daily changes in length and direction of shadows, day and night, and the seasonal appearance of some stars in the night sky. (5-ESS1-2)
*(Clarification Statement: Examples of patterns could include the position and motion of Earth with respect to the sun and selected stars that are visible only in particular months.) (Boundary Statement: Does not include causes of seasons.)*

Academic Contexts and Connections:

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Colorado Essential Skills and Science and Engineering Practices:
*

- Represent data in graphical displays (bar graphs, pictographs and/or pie charts) to reveal patterns that indicate relationships. (Analyzing and Interpreting Data) (Entrepreneurial: Critical thinking/Problem solving).

- Students can answer the question: What are the predictable patterns caused by Earth’s movement in the solar system?
- ESS1:B Earth and the Solar System: The orbits of Earth around the sun and of the moon around Earth, together with the rotation of Earth about an axis between its North and South poles, cause observable patterns. These include day and night; daily changes in the length and direction of shadows; and different positions of the sun, moon and stars at different times of the day, month and year.

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- 10. Students can use the full range of science and engineering practices to make sense of natural phenomena and solve problems that require understanding how and why Earth is constantly changing.

3. Earth’s major systems interact in multiple ways to affect Earth’s surface materials and processes.

*Students Can:*

- Develop a model using an example to describe ways the geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and/or atmosphere interact. (5-ESS2-1)
*(Clarification Statement: Examples could include the influence of the ocean on ecosystems, landform shape, and climate; the influence of the atmosphere on landforms and ecosystems through weather and climate; and the influence of mountain ranges on winds and clouds in the atmosphere. The geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere are each a system.) (Boundary Statement: Limited to the interactions of two systems at a time.)*

Academic Contexts and Connections:

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Colorado Essential Skills and Science and Engineering Practices:
*

- Develop a model using an example to describe a scientific principle. (Developing and Using Models) (Personal: Initiative/Self-direction).

- Students can answer the question: How do Earth’s major systems interact? How do the properties and movements of water shape Earth’s surface and affect its systems?
- ESS2:A Earth Materials and Systems: Earth’s major systems are the geosphere (solid and molten rock, soil, and sediments), the hydrosphere (water and ice), the atmosphere (air), and the biosphere (living things, including humans). These systems interact in multiple ways to affect Earth’s surface materials and processes. The ocean supports a variety of ecosystems and organisms, shapes landforms and influences climate. Winds and clouds in the atmosphere interact with the landforms to determine patterns of weather.

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- 10. Students can use the full range of science and engineering practices to make sense of natural phenomena and solve problems that require understanding how and why Earth is constantly changing.

4. Most of Earth’s water is in the ocean and much of Earth’s freshwater in glaciers or underground.

*Students Can:*

- Describe and graph the amounts and percentages of saltwater and freshwater in various reservoirs to provide evidence about the distribution of water on Earth. (5-ESS2-2)
*(Boundary Statement: Limited to oceans, lakes, rivers, glaciers, ground water, and polar ice caps, and does not include the atmosphere.)*

Academic Contexts and Connections:

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Colorado Essential Skills and Science and Engineering Practices:
*

- Describe and graph quantities such as area and volume to address scientific questions (Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking) (Entrepreneurial: Critical thinking/Problem solving).

- Students can answer the question: How do the properties and movements of water shape Earth’s surface and affect its systems?
- ESS2:C The Roles of Water in Earth’s Surface Processes: Nearly all of Earth’s available water is in the ocean. Most fresh water is in glaciers or underground; only a tiny fraction is in streams, lakes, wetlands and the atmosphere.

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- 10. Students can use the full range of science and engineering practices to make sense of natural phenomena and solve problems that require understanding how and why Earth is constantly changing.

5. Societal activities have had major effects on land, ocean, atmosphere and even outer space

*Students Can:*

- Obtain and combine information about ways individual communities use science ideas to protect the Earth’s resources and environment. (5-ESS3-1)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

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Colorado Essential Skills and Science and Engineering Practices:
*

- Obtain and combine information from books and/or other reliable media to explain phenomena or solutions to a design problem. (Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information) (Civic/Interpersonal: Communication)

- Students can answer the question: How do humans change the planet?
- ESS3:C Human Impacts on Earth Systems: Human activities in agriculture, industry, and everyday life have had major effects on the land, vegetation, streams, ocean, air and even outer space. But individuals and communities are doing things to help protect Earth’s resources and environments.

**Social Studies**

**Fifth Grade, Standard 1. History**

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- 1. Understand the nature of historical knowledge as a process of inquiry that examines and analyzes how history is viewed, constructed, and interpreted.

1. Analyze primary and secondary sources from multiple points of view to develop an understanding of early United States history.

*Students Can:*

- Recognize how historical context can affect the perspective of historical sources.
- Examine significant historical documents. For example: the Stamp Act, the Declaration of Independence, and the Constitution.
- Interpret timelines of eras and themes in North America from European colonization through the establishment of the United States Government.
- Analyze cartoons, artifacts, artwork, charts, and graphs related to eras and themes in North America from European colonization through the establishment of the United States Government.

Academic Contexts and Connections:

- Make observations and draw conclusions from a variety of sources when studying American history. (Entrepreneurial Skills: Inquiry/Analysis)
- Identify and explain multiple perspectives when exploring events, ideas, issues in United States history. (Civic/Interpersonal Skills: Global/Cultural Awareness).

- How do sources with varied perspectives help us to understand what happened in the past?
- Why is important to understand the historical context of events?
- How might history be different without the Declaration of Independence?

- Historical thinkers analyze and interpret primary and secondary sources to make inferences about various time periods and show cause-and-effect relationships.
- Historical thinkers seek people, places, and events that tell the story of history from multiple perspectives.
- Historical thinkers examine data for point of view, historical context, distortion, or propaganda.
- Historical thinkers apply the historical method of inquiry to continuously interpret and refine history. For example, political cartoonists portray multiple perspectives of events, and newspapers may be biased in coverage of events throughout time.
- Historical thinkers generate questions about individuals and groups who have shaped significant historical changes and continuities.
- Historical thinkers explain why individuals and groups during the same historical period differed in their perspectives.
- Historical thinkers explain connections among historical contexts and people’s perspectives at the time.
- Historical thinkers summarize how different kinds of historical sources are used to explain events in the past.
- Historical thinkers gather relevant information from multiple sources while using the origin, structure, and context to guide the selection.
- Historical thinkers use evidence to develop claims in response to compelling questions.

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Disciplinary, Information, and Media Literacy:
*

- Analyze multiple accounts of the same event or topic, noting important similarities and differences in the point of view they represent.
- Integrate information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.
- Provide logically ordered reasons that are supported by facts and details.
- Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
- Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
- Articulate the most effective options to access information needed for a specific purpose.
- Communicate information through the use of technologies.

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- 2. Analyze historical time periods and patterns of continuity and change, through multiple perspectives, within and among cultures and societies.

2. The historical eras, individuals, groups, ideas, and themes in North America from European colonization through the establishment of the United States Government.

*Students Can:*

- Identify and explain cultural interactions between the European colonists, American Indians, and enslaved individuals. For example: the Columbian Exchange, and various trade networks.
- Identify and describe the significant individuals and groups of American Indians and European colonists before the American Revolution.
- Explain the development of political, social and economic institutions in the British American colonies.
- Explain important political, social, economic, and military developments leading to and during the American Revolution.

Academic Contexts and Connections:

- Identify and explain multiple perspectives when exploring events, ideas, issues in United States history. (Civic/Interpersonal Skills: Global/Cultural Awareness).

- How did historical events and individuals contribute to diversity in the United States?
- How did important American documents shape American beliefs and values?
- To what extent did individuals and their ideas contribute to the establishment of the United States government?

- Historical thinkers use chronology to organize and study cause-and-effect relationships across time.
- Historical thinkers study people, places, and events to tell the story of history from multiple perspectives.
- Historical thinkers examine the context and information from the past to make connections and inform decisions in the present. For example: the concept of liberty continues to be defended by lawyers and citizens; and the rights and responsibilities of citizens continue to evolve through the work of policy makers, legislators, judges, lawyers, and individuals.
- Historical thinkers generate questions about individuals and groups who have shaped significant historical changes and continuities.
- Historical thinkers explain connections among historical contexts and people’s perspectives at the time.
- Historical thinkers summarize how different kinds of historical sources are used to explain events in the past.
- Historical thinkers use evidence to develop a claim about the past.
- Historical thinkers construct explanations using reasoning, correct sequence, examples, and details with relevant information and data.

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Disciplinary, Information, and Media Literacy:
*

- Integrate information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.
- Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
- Introduce a topic clearly, provide a general observation and focus, and group related information logically; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
- Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
- Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.
- Report on a topic or text or present an opinion, sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.
- Communicate information through the use of technologies.

**Social Studies**

**Fifth Grade, Standard 2. Geography**

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- 3. Apply geographic representations and perspectives to analyze human movement, spatial patterns, systems, and the connections and relationships among them.

1. Use geographic tools and sources to research and answer questions about United States geography.

*Students Can:*

- Answer questions about regions of the United States using various types of maps.
- Use geographic tools to identify, locate, and describe places and regions in the United States and suggest reasons for their location.
- Describe the influence of accessible resources on the development of local and regional communities throughout the United States.

Academic Contexts and Connections:

- Investigate geographic resources to form hypotheses, make observations, and draw conclusions about communities in the United States. (Entrepreneurial Skills: Inquiry/Analysis)

- How can various types of maps and other geographic tools communicate geographic information incorrectly?
- How do you think differently about data when it is displayed spatially?
- How and why do we label places?
- How have places and regions in the United States been influenced by the physical geography of North America over time?

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Nature and Skills of Geography:
*

- Spatial thinkers use geographic tools to evaluate data in order to answer geographic questions.
- Spatial thinkers locate places and identify resources, physical features, regions, and populations using geographic tools.
- Spatial thinkers use geographic technologies to enhance the ability to locate and analyze maps to answer questions. For example: historians use maps to help re-create settings of historical events, and individuals use maps to learn about different geographic areas.

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Disciplinary, Information, and Media Literacy:
*

- Analyze multiple accounts of the same event or topic, noting important similarities and differences in the point of view they represent.
- Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
- Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.
- Report on a topic or text or present an opinion, sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.

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- 4. Examine the characteristics of places and regions, and the changing nature among geographic and human interactions.

2. Causes and consequences of movement.

*Students Can:*

- Identify variables associated with discovery, exploration, and migration.
- Explain migration, trade, and cultural patterns that result from interactions among people, groups, and cultures.
- Describe and analyze how specific physical and political features influenced historical events, movements, and adaptation to the environment.
- Analyze how cooperation and conflict among people contribute to political, economic, and social divisions in the United States.
- Give examples of the influence of geography on the history of the United States.

Academic Contexts and Connections:

- Consider purpose, formality of context and audience, and distinct cultural norms when planning the content, mode, delivery, and expression of analysis of historical events and movements. (Civic/Interpersonal Skills: Communication)
- Identify and explain multiple perspectives when exploring ideas about conflict in the United States. (Civic/Interpersonal Skills: Global/Cultural Awareness)

- What human and physical characteristics have motivated, prevented, or impeded migration and immigration over time?
- How can migration and immigration be represented geographically?
- How has the movement of people and their belongings affected the environment both positively and negatively?

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Nature and Skills of Geography:
*

- Geographic thinkers study patterns of human movement.
- Geographic thinkers understand how technology has influenced movement to, colonization of, and the settlement of North America.
- Geographic thinkers examine how the migration of individuals affects society including economic and environmental impacts.

*
Disciplinary, Information, and Media Literacy:
*

- Draw evidence from geographic tools or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
- Determine the kinds of sources that will be helpful in answering compelling and supporting questions, taking into consideration the different opinions people have about how to answer the questions.

**Social Studies**

**Fifth Grade, Standard 3. Economics**

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- 5. Understand the allocation of scarce resources in societies through analysis of individual choice, market interaction, and public policy.

1. Trade shaped the development of early America.

*Students Can:*

- Identify examples of the productive resources and explain how they are used to produce goods and services. For example: land, labor, and capital.
- Compare ways in which people and communities exchanged goods and services. For example: barter and monetary exchange.
- Identify the goods and services that were traded among different cultures and regions.
- Describe how patterns of trade evolved within early America.
- Explain some of the challenges that American colonists faced that would eventually lead them to the creation of commercial banks.

Academic Contexts and Connections:

- Investigate to form hypotheses, make observations and draw conclusions about the development of the systems of exchange in the United States. (Entrepreneurial Skills: Inquiry/Analysis).
- Recognize how members of a community rely on each other through trade and exchange. (Civic/Interpersonal Skills: Collaboration/Teamwork)

- How did different cultures or communities in early America interact with each other?
- Why do people trade?
- Why do most modern societies choose to use money?
- How are financial institutions important to society?

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Nature and Skills of Economics:
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- Economic thinkers analyze trade and the use of money.
- Economic thinkers describe and study the importance of exchange in a community.
- Economic thinkers understand the actions of financial institutions in a market economy.
- Economic thinkers make decisions about how to use scarce resources to maximize the well-being of individuals and society.
- Economic thinkers voluntarily exchange goods and services when both parties expect to gain as a result of the trade.
- Economic thinkers understand that the principles of markets apply to markets for goods and services, labor, credit, and foreign exchange.
- Economic thinkers understand why people specialize and trade, and how that leads to increased economic interdependence in the world economy.
- Economic thinkers gather information from a variety of sources and evaluate the relevance of that information when constructing opinions, explanation, or arguments.

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Disciplinary, Information, and Media Literacy:
*

- Determine the kinds of sources that will be helpful in answering compelling and supporting questions, taking into consideration the different opinions people have about how to answer the questions.
- Integrate information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.
- Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
- Identify cause and effect, and fact versus opinion.
- Conduct research by locating, gathering, and organizing information using online and print resources.
- Explain content through the use of maps, graphs, charts, diagrams.
- Use content specific technology tools to support learning.

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- 6. Apply economic reasoning skills to make informed personal financial decisions (PFL).

2. Examine how individuals use financial institutions to manage personal finances (PFL).

*Students Can:*

- Differentiate between saving and investing.
- Establish the function of banking.
- Distinguish between different types of financial institutions such as banks and credit unions, and the services provided. For example: checking accounts, savings accounts, investments, and loans.
- Create a way to keep track of money spent and money saved.

Academic Contexts and Connections:

- Make connections between information gathered and personal experiences to apply and/or test solutions when choosing a financial institution or financial product. (Entrepreneurial Skills: Critical Thinking/Problem Solving)
- Express one’s own emotions, thoughts, and values and identify how they influence behavior when making decisions regarding choosing a financial institution or financial product. (Personal Skills: Self-Awareness)
- Ask questions to develop further personal understanding when choosing financial institutions and financial products. (Professional Skills: Self-Advocacy)

- What risks and benefits are associated with spending versus saving and investing?
- How can a checking account help to decide how to spend and save?
- Why do people use financial institutions rather than self-banking?
- How do people choose a financial institution?

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Nature and Skills of Economics:
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- Financially capable individuals research, analyze, and make choices regarding their needs when using financial institutions.
- Financially capable individuals identify positive and negative incentives that influence the decisions people make.
- Financially capable individuals use technology to track and graph the interest accrued on “virtual” investments, checking and savings accounts, investments, and loans.

**Social Studies**

**Fifth Grade, Standard 4. Civics**

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- 7. Express an understanding of how civic participation affects policy by applying the rights and responsibilities of a citizen.

1. Construct an understanding of the foundations of citizenship in the United States.

*Students Can:*

- Describe and provide sources and examples of individual rights.
- Give examples of group and individual actions that illustrate civic ideals in the founding of the United States. For example: freedom, rule of law, equality, civility, cooperation, respect, responsibility, and civic participation.
- Explain the reasons for the settlement of the American colonies.
- Define the criteria and process for becoming a citizen.

Academic Contexts and Connections:

- Recognize how members of a community rely on each other through a variety of ways when creating rules and norms. (Civic/Interpersonal Skills: Collaboration/Teamwork)
- Connect knowledge of the foundations of citizenship in the United States to personal ideas/understandings. (Civic/Interpersonal Skills: Civic Engagement)

- How might citizens view an issue differently because of their backgrounds?
- What is the most important right of a citizen?
- What is the most important responsibility of a citizen?
- How does government meet its responsibility to citizens?
- Who is government?

- Civic-minded individuals understand that civic virtues such as civility, cooperation, respect, and responsible participation are foundational components of our society.
- Civic-minded individuals understand the significance of peaceful assembly by groups and respectful behavior during a performance or speech.
- Civic-minded individuals understand that the foundations of citizenship in the United States ensure that citizens' rights are being protected. For example: the rule of law applies to everyone in society and all individuals and groups are treated with respect.
- Civic-minded individuals analyze critical historical documents to investigate the development of the national government.
- Civic-minded individuals understand the responsibilities of the national government to its citizens.
- Civic-minded individuals understand that in order to act responsibly and effectively, citizens must understand the important institutions of their society and the principles that these institutions are intended to reflect.
- Civic-minded individuals gather information from a variety of sources and evaluate the relevance of that information when constructing opinions, explanation, or arguments.

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- 8. Analyze the origins, structures, and functions of governments to evaluate the impact on citizens and the global society.

2. The origins, structures, and functions of the United States government.

*Students Can:*

- Explain the historical foundation and the events that led to the establishment of the United States government. For example: the colonial experience, the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and the Constitution.
- Identify political principles of American democracy and how the Constitution and Bill of Rights reflect and preserve these principles.
- Explain the origins, structures, and functions of the three branches of the United States government and the relationships among them.
- Describe how the decisions of the national government affect local and state government.

Academic Contexts and Connections:

- Identify and explain multiple perspectives when exploring the events leading to the creation of the United States government and the principles of American democracy. (Civic/Interpersonal Skills: Global/Cultural Awareness)

- What are democratic ideals and practices and their historic origins?
- Were the founding fathers correct in keeping the Constitution open for flexibility and interpretation? Why?
- How have historical documents defined and distributed power?

- Civic-minded individuals understand the concept of individual rights as a cornerstone to American democracy.
- Civic-minded individuals understand the relationships between individual rights and personal responsibility.
- Civic-minded individuals know that the origins, structure, and function of the United States government are studied to create an informed, civically literate, and responsible society. For example: fundamental principles and liberties are still evolving as judges interpret the Constitution, and legislators make laws and local city councils and boards create regulations.
- Civic-minded individuals understand that in order to act responsibly and effectively, citizens must understand the important institutions of their society and the principles that these institutions are intended to reflect.
- Civic-minded individuals understand that civics teaches the principles—such as adherence to the social contract, consent of the governed, limited government, legitimate authority, federalism, and separation of powers—that are meant to guide official institutions such as legislatures, courts, and government agencies.

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Disciplinary, Information, and Media Literacy:
*

- Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
- Determine the kinds of sources that will be helpful in answering compelling and supporting questions, taking into consideration the different opinions people have about how to answer the questions.
- Identify and discuss primary and secondary sources.

**Need Help?** Submit questions or requests for assistance to bruno_j@cde.state.co.us