# 2020 Colorado Academic Standards Online

Use the options below to create customized views of the 2020 Colorado Academic Standards. For all standards resources, see the Office of Standards and Instructional Support.

**Current selections are shown below (maximum of five)**

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*Content Area:* Reading, Writing and Communicating
// *Grade Level:* Third Grade
// *Standard Category:* All Standards Categories

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*Content Area:* Science
// *Grade Level:* Third Grade
// *Standard Category:* All Standards Categories

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*Content Area:* Mathematics
// *Grade Level:* Third Grade
// *Standard Category:* All Standards Categories

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*Content Area:* Social Studies
// *Grade Level:* Third Grade
// *Standard Category:* All Standards Categories

**Reading, Writing and Communicating**

**Third Grade, Standard 1. Oral Expression and Listening**

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- 1. Collaborate effectively as group members or leaders who listen actively and respectfully; pose thoughtful questions, acknowledge the ideas of others; and contribute ideas to further the group’s attainment of an objective.

1. Participate cooperatively in group activities.

*Students Can:*

- Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on
*grade 3 topics and texts*, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. (CCSS: SL 3.1)- Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion. (CCSS: SL.3.1a)
- Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (for example: gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion). (CCSS: SL.3.1b)
- Ask questions to check understanding of information presented, stay on topic, and link their comments to the remarks of others. (CCSS: SL.3.1c)
- Explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion. (CCSS: SL.3.1d)

- Determine the main ideas and supporting details of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally. (CCSS: SL 3.2)
- Ask and answer questions about information from a speaker, offering appropriate elaboration and detail. (CCSS: SL 3.3)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

- Discern differences of effective and ineffective processes, communication and tasks. (Personal Skills, Personal Responsibility)
- Consider purpose, formality of context and audience, and distinct cultural norms when planning content, mode, delivery, and expression. (Civic/Interpersonal Skills, Communication (using information and communications technologies))
- State a position and reflect on possible objections to, assumptions and implications of the position. (Civic/Interpersonal Skills, Character)

- What are the different kinds of roles people have when working in a group?
- What characteristics do effective group members have?
- How do we have a collaborative conversation?

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- 2. Deliver effective oral presentations for varied audiences and varied purposes.

2. Communicate using appropriate language in informal and formal situations.

*Students Can:*

- Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking clearly at an understandable pace. (CCSS: SL.3.4)
- Distinguish different levels of formality.
- Speak clearly, using appropriate volume and pitch for the purpose and audience.
- Select and organize ideas sequentially or around major points of information that relate to the formality of the audience.
- Create engaging audio recordings of stories or poems that demonstrate fluid reading at an understandable pace; add visual displays when appropriate to emphasize or enhance certain facts or details. (CCSS: SL.3.5)
- Speak in complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification. (CCSS: SL.3.6)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

- Discern differences of effective and ineffective processes, communication and tasks. (Personal Skills, Personal Responsibility)
- Consider purpose, formality of context and audience, and distinct cultural norms when planning content, mode, delivery, and expression. (Civic/Interpersonal Skills, Communication (using information and communications technologies))
- State a position and reflect on possible objections to, assumptions and implications of the position. (Civic/Interpersonal Skills, Character)

- Why is it important to speak clearly with appropriate volume and pitch?
- What information is important to consider when giving a presentation?

**Reading, Writing and Communicating**

**Third Grade, Standard 2. Reading for All Purposes**

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- 3. Read a wide range of literary texts to build knowledge and to better understand the human experience.

1. Apply strategies to fluently read and comprehend various literary texts.

*Students Can:*

- Use Key Ideas and Details to:
- Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. (CCSS: RL.3.1) *
- Use a variety of comprehension strategies to interpret text (attending, searching, predicting, checking, and self-correcting). *
- Recount stories, including fables, folktales, and myths from diverse cultures; determine the central message, lesson, or moral and explain how it is conveyed through key details in the text. (CCSS: RL.3.2)
- Summarize central ideas and important details from a text. *
- Describe and draw inferences about the elements of plot, character, and setting in literary pieces, poems, and plays.
- Describe characters in a story (for example: their traits, motivations, or feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events. (CCSS: RL.3.3)

- Use Craft and Structure to:
- Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, distinguishing literal from nonliteral language. (CCSS: RL.3.4)*
- Use signal words (such as
*before*,*after*,*next*) and text structure (narrative, chronology) to determine the sequence of major events - Refer to parts of stories, dramas, and poems when writing or speaking about a text, using terms such as chapter, scene, and stanza; describe how each successive part builds on earlier sections. (CCSS: RL.3.5)
- Distinguish their own point of view from that of the narrator or those of the characters. (CCSS: RL.3.6)

- Use Integration of Knowledge and Ideas to:
- Explain how specific aspects of a text’s illustrations contribute to what is conveyed by the words in a story (for example: create mood, emphasize aspects of a character or setting). (CCSS: RL.3.7)
- Compare and contrast the themes, settings, and plots of stories written by the same author about the same or similar characters (for example: in books from a series). (CCSS: RL.3.9) *

- Use Range of Reading and Complexity of Text to:
- By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 2-3 text complexity band independently and proficiently. (CCSS: RL.3.10)

- Read grade level text accurately and fluently, attending to phrasing, intonation, and punctuation. *

Academic Contexts and Connections:

- Read a minimum of 107 words per minute in the spring with fluency. *
- Demonstrate flexibility, imagination, and inventiveness in taking on tasks and activities. (Entrepreneurial Skills, Informed Risk Taking)
- Identify and explain multiple perspectives (cultural, global) when exploring events, ideas, issues. (Civic/Interpersonal Skills, Global/Cultural Awareness)
- Ask questions to develop further personal understanding. (Professional Skills, Self-Advocacy)

- How do we use different reading strategies to better understand a variety of texts?
- How is accuracy in reading like accuracy in mathematics?
- How does structure affect our understanding of a text?
- How does comparing two texts help our understanding of what we read?

- Critical readers use appropriate strategies to understand, describe, summarize and reflect on texts.

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- 4. Read a wide range of informational texts to build knowledge and to better understand the human experience.

2. Apply strategies to fluently read and comprehend various informational texts.

*Students Can:*

- Use Key Ideas and Details to:
- Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. (CCSS: RI.3.1) *
- Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea. (CCSS: RI.3.2) *
- Identify a main topic of a multi-paragraph text as well as the focus of specific paragraphs within the text *
- Describe the relationship between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect. (CCSS: RI.3.3) *

- Use Craft and Structure to:
- Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a
*grade 3 topic or subject area*. (CCSS: RI.3.4) - Use text features and search tools (for example: key words, sidebars, hyperlinks) to locate information relevant to a given topic efficiently. (CCSS: RI.3.5)
- Distinguish their own point of view from that of the author of a text. (CCSS: RI.3.6)
- Use semantic cues and signal words (for example:
*because*and*although*) to identify cause/effect and compare/contrast relationships. *

- Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a
- Use Integration of Knowledge and Ideas to:
- Use information gained from illustrations (for example: maps, photographs) and the words in a text to demonstrate understanding of the text (for example:
*where*,*when*,*why*, and*how*key events occur). (CCSS: RI.3.7) - Describe the logical connection between particular sentences and paragraphs in a text (for example: comparison, cause/effect, first/second/third in a sequence). (CCSS: RI.3.8) *
- Compare and contrast the most important points and key details presented in two texts on the same topic. (CCSS: RI.3.9) *

- Use information gained from illustrations (for example: maps, photographs) and the words in a text to demonstrate understanding of the text (for example:
- Use Range of Reading and Complexity of Text to:
- By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 2–3 text complexity band independently and proficiently. (CCSS: RI.3.10) *

Academic Contexts and Connections:

- Read a minimum of 107 words per minute in the spring with fluency. *
- Demonstrate flexibility, imagination, and inventiveness in taking on tasks and activities. (Entrepreneurial Skills, Informed Risk Taking)
- Identify and explain multiple perspectives (cultural, global) when exploring events, ideas, issues. (Civic/Interpersonal Skills, Global/Cultural Awareness)
- Articulate the most effective options to access information needed for a specific purpose. (Professional Skills, Information Literacy)

- How do readers use different reading strategies to better understand a variety of texts?
- How is accuracy in reading like accuracy in mathematics?
- How does structure affect our understanding of a text?
- How does comparing two texts help our understanding of what we read?

- Critical readers evaluate and draw logical conclusions from informational texts.

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- 5. Understand how language functions in different contexts, command a variety of word-learning strategies to assist comprehension, and make effective choices for meaning or style when writing and speaking.

3. Apply knowledge of spelling patterns (orthography), word meanings (morphology), and word relationships to decode words and increase vocabulary.

*Students Can:*

- Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. (CCSS: RF.3.3)
- Identify and know the meaning of the most common prefixes and derivational suffixes. (CCSS: RF.3.3a) *
- Decode words with common Latin suffixes. (CCSS: RF.3.3b) *
- Decode multisyllable words. (CCSS: RF.3.3c) *
- Read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words. (CCSS: RF.3.3d) *

- Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. (CCSS: RF.3.4)
- Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding. (CCSS.3.4a)
- Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression. (CCSS.3.4b)
- Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary. (CCSS.3.4c)

- Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning word and phrases based on grade 3 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. (CCSS: L.3.4)
- Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. (CCSS: L.3.4a) *
- Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known affix is added to a known word (for example:
*agreeable/disagreeable*,*comfortable/uncomfortable*,*care/careless*,*heat/preheat*). (CCSS: L.3.4b) * - Use knowledge of word relationships to identify antonyms or synonyms to clarify meaning. *
- Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (for example:
*company*,*companion*). (CCSS: L.3.4c) * - Use glossaries or beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases. (CCSS: L.3.4d)
- Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a
*grade 3 topic or subject area*. *

- Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings. (CCSS: L.3.5)
- Distinguish the literal and nonliteral meanings of words and phrases in context (for example:
*take steps*). (CCSS: L.3.5a) - Identify real-life connections between words and their use (for example: describe people who are
*friendl*y or*helpful*). (CCSS: L.3.5b) - Distinguish shades of meaning among related words that describe states of mind or degrees of certainty (for example:
*knew*,*believed*,*suspected*,*heard*,*wondered*). (CCSS: L.3.5c)

- Distinguish the literal and nonliteral meanings of words and phrases in context (for example:
- Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate conversational, general academic, and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal spatial and temporal relationships (for example:
*After dinner that night we went looking for them*). (CCSS: L.3.6)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

- Read a minimum of 107 words per minute in the spring with fluency. *
- Investigate to form hypotheses, make observations, and draw conclusions. (Entrepreneurial Skills, Inquiry/Analysis)
- Demonstrate flexibility, imagination, and inventiveness in taking on tasks and activities. (Entrepreneurial Skills, Informed Risk Taking)
- Ask questions to develop further personal understanding. (Professional Skills, Self-Advocacy)
- The student must demonstrate all of the phonemic awareness skill competencies outlined in Kindergarten and First grade. *

- How do prefixes and suffixes change the meaning of a word?
- How does the root word help us understand the meaning of a word?

- Critical readers use appropriate strategies to monitor meaning of texts.

**Reading, Writing and Communicating**

**Third Grade, Standard 3. Writing and Composition**

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1. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons.

*Students Can:*

- Introduce the topic or text they are writing about, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure that includes reasons. (CCSS: W.3.1a)
- Provide reasons that support the opinion. (CCSS: W.3.1b)
- Use linking words and phrases (for example:
*because*,*therefore*,*since*,*for example*) to connect opinion and reasons. (CCSS: W.3.1c) - Provide a concluding statement or section. (CCSS: W.3.1d)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

- Regulate reactions to differing perspective. (Personal Skills, Adaptability/Flexibility)
- Identify and explain multiple perspectives (cultural, global) when exploring events, ideas, issues. (Civic/Interpersonal Skills, Global/Cultural Awareness)
- State a position and reflect on possible objections to, assumptions and implications of the position. (Civic/Interpersonal Skills, Character)

- How do we connect ideas when writing?
- How do we structure writing effectively?
- How do we support our opinions?

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- 7. Craft informational/explanatory texts using techniques specific to the genre.

2. Write informative/explanatory texts developed with facts, definitions, and details, ending with a related concluding statement.

*Students Can:*

- Introduce a topic and group related information together; include illustrations when useful to aiding comprehension. (CCSS: W.3.2a)
- Develop the topic with facts, definitions, and details. (CCSS: W.3.2b)
- Use linking words and phrases (for example:
*also*,*another*,*and*,*more*,*but*) to connect ideas within categories of information. (CCSS: W.3c) - Provide a concluding statement or section. (CCSS: W.3.2d)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

- Define the problem using a variety of strategies. (Entrepreneurial Skills, Critical Thinking/Problem Solving)
- Investigate to form hypotheses make observations, and draw conclusions. (Entrepreneurial Skills, Inquiry/Analysis)
- Articulate the most effective options to access information needed for a specific purpose. (Professional Skills, Information Literacy)

- How do we gather accurate information?
- Why is it important for us to label text features?
- How do we structure writing effectively?

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3. Write real or imagined narratives that use descriptive details, have a clear sequence of events, and provide closure.

*Students Can:*

- Establish a situation and introduce a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally. (CCSS: W.3.3a)
- Use dialogue and descriptions of actions, thoughts, and feelings to develop experiences and events or show the response of characters to situations. (CCSS: W.3.3b)
- Use temporal words and phrases to signal event order. (CCSS: W.3c)
- Provide a sense of closure. (CCSS: W.3.3d)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

- Appropriate express one's own emotions, thoughts, and values and identify how they influence behavior. (Personal Skills, Self-Awareness)
- Discern differences of effective and ineffective processes, communication and tasks. (Personal Skills, Personal Responsibility)
- Consider purpose, formality of context and audience, and distinct cultural norms when planning content, mode, delivery, and expression. (Civic/Interpersonal Skills, Communication (using information and communications technologies))

- Why do we use dialogue and description in narrative writing?
- How do we structure our writing effectively?

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- 9. Demonstrate mastery of their own writing process with clear, coherent, and error-free polished products.

4. Use a recursive process to plan, draft, revise, and edit writing, applying knowledge of the conventions of grammar, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

*Students Can:*

- Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (CCSS: L.3.1)
- Explain the function of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in general and their functions in particular sentences. (CCSS: L.3.1a)
- Use abstract nouns (for example:
*childhood*). (CCSS: L.3.1c) - Form and use regular and irregular verbs. (CCSS: L.3.1d)
- Form and use the simple (for example: I
*walked*; I*walk*; I*will walk*) verb tenses. (CCSS: L.3.1e) - Ensure pronoun-antecedent agreement. (adapted from CCSS: L.3.1f)
- Form and use comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified. (CCSS: L.3.1g)
- Use coordinating and subordinating conjunctions. (CCSS: L.3.1h)
- Produce simple, compound, and complex sentences using coordinating and subordinating conjunctions. (adapted from CCSS: L.3.1i)
- Vary sentence beginnings, and use long and short sentences to create sentence fluency in longer texts

- Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (CCSS: L.3.2)
- Capitalize appropriate words in titles. (CCSS: L.3.2a)
- Use commas in addresses. (CCSS: L.3.2b)
- Use commas and quotation marks in dialogue. (CCSS: L.3.2c)
- Form and use possessives. (CCSS: L.3.2d)
- Use conventional spelling for high-frequency and other studied words and for adding suffixes to base words (for example:
*sitting*,*smiled*,*cries*,*happiness*). (CCSS: L.3.2e) - Use spelling patterns and generalizations (for example:
*word families*,*position-based spellings*,*syllable patterns*,*ending rules*,*meaningful word parts*) in writing words. (CCSS: L.3.2f) - Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings. (CCSS: L.3.2g)

- Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. (CCSS: L.3.3)
- Choose words and phrases for effect. (CCSS: L.3.3a)
- Recognize and observe differences between the conventions of spoken and written standard English. (CCSS: L.3.3b)

- With guidance and support from adults, produce writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task and purpose. (CCSS: W.3.4)
- With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing. (CCSS: W.3.5)
- With guidance and support from adults, use technology to produce and publish writing (using keyboarding skills) as well as to interact and collaborate with others. (CCSS: W.3.6)
- Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences. (CCSS.W.3.10)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

- Set goals and develop strategies to remain focused on learning goals. (Personal Skills, Perseverance/Resilience)
- Develop and utilize basic task and time management strategies effectively. (Professional Skills, Task/Time Management)
- Articulate the most effective options to access information needed for a specific purpose. (Professional Skills, Information Literacy)

- What do we need to be mindful of as a writer?
- What are differences between simple and complex sentences?
- What resources can be used to help spell words correctly?

**Reading, Writing and Communicating**

**Third Grade, Standard 4. Research Inquiry and Design**

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- 10. Gather information from a variety of sources; analyze and evaluate its quality and relevance; and use it ethically to answer complex questions.

1. Gather, interpret, and communicate information discovered during short research projects.

*Students Can:*

- Conduct short research projects that build knowledge about a topic. (CCSS: W.3.7)
- Interpret and communicate the information learned by developing a brief summary with supporting details.
- Develop supporting visual information (for example: charts, maps, illustrations, models).
- Present a brief report of the research findings to an audience.
- Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories. (CCSS: W.3.8)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

- Investigate to form hypotheses make observations, and draw conclusions. (Entrepreneurial Skills, Inquiry/Analysis)
- Communicate information through the use of technologies. (Professional Skills, Use Information and Communications Technologies)

- Why do we use more than one resource when researching?
- How do visuals support information presented in research?

**Science**

**Third Grade, Standard 1. Physical Science**

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- 2. Students can use the full range of science and engineering practices to make sense of natural phenomena and solve problems that require understanding interactions between objects and within systems of objects.

1. Patterns of motion can be used to predict future motion.

*Students Can:*

- Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence of the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on the motion of an object. (3-PS2-1)
*(Clarification Statement: Examples could include an unbalanced force on one side of a ball can make it start moving and balanced forces pushing on a box from both sides will not produce any motion at all.) (Boundary Statements: Limited to one variable at a time: number, size or direction of forces and to gravity being addressed as a force that pulls objects down. Does not include quantitative force size, only qualitative and relative.)* - Make observations and/or measurements of an object’s motion to provide evidence that a pattern can be used to predict future motion. (3-PS2-2)
*(Clarification Statement: Examples of motion with a predictable pattern could include a child swinging in a swing, a ball rolling back and forth in a bowl and two children on a see-saw.) (Boundary Statement: Does not include technical terms such as period and frequency.)*

Academic Contexts and Connections:

*
Colorado Essential Skills and Science and Engineering Practices:
*

- Ask questions that can be investigated based on patterns such as cause and effect relationships. (Asking Questions and Defining Problems) (Entrepreneurial: Inquiry/Analysis)
- Define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool. (Asking Questions and Defining Problems) (Entrepreneurial: Inquiry/Analysis)
- Plan and conduct an investigation collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence, using fair tests in which variables are controlled and the number of trials considered. (Planning and Carrying Out Investigations) (Entrepreneurial: Inquiry/Analysis)
- Make observations and/or measurements to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence for an explanation of a phenomenon or test a design solution. (Planning and Carrying Out Investigations) (Entrepreneurial: Inquiry/Analysis)

- Students can answer the questions: How can one predict an object’s continued motion, changes in motion or stability? What underlying forces explain the variety of interactions observed?
- PS2:A Forces and Motion: Each force acts on one particular object and has both strength and a direction. An object at rest typically has multiple forces acting on it, but they add to give zero net force on the object. Forces that do not sum to zero can cause changes in the object’s speed or direction of motion. (Boundary: Qualitative and conceptual, but not quantitative addition of forces is used at this level). The patterns of an object’s motion in various situations can be observed and measured; when that past motion exhibits a regular pattern, future motion can be predicted from it. (Boundary: Technical terms, such as magnitude, velocity, momentum and vector quantity, are not introduced at this level, but the concept that some quantities need both size and direction to be described is developed.)
- PS2:B Types of Interactions: Objects in contact exert forces on each other.

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- 3. Students can use the full range of science and engineering practices to make sense of natural phenomena and solve problems that require understanding how energy is transferred and conserved.

2. Objects in contact exert forces on each other; electric and magnetic forces between a pair of objects do not require contact.

*Students Can:*

- Ask questions to determine cause - and - effect relationships of electric or magnetic interactions between two objects not in contact with each other. (3-PS2-3)
*(Clarification Statement: Examples of an electric force could include the force on hair from an electrically charged balloon and the electrical forces between a charged rod and pieces of paper; examples of a magnetic force could include the force between two permanent magnets, the force between an electromagnet and steel paperclips and the force exerted by one magnet versus the force exerted by two magnets. Examples of cause - and - effect relationships could include how the distance between objects affects strength of the force and how the orientation of magnets affects the direction of the magnetic force.) (Boundary Statement: Limited to forces produced by objects that can be manipulated by students, and electrical interactions are limited to static electricity.)* - Define a simple design problem that can be solved by applying scientific ideas about magnets. (3-PS2-4)
*(Clarification Statement: Examples of problems could include constructing a latch to keep a door shut and creating a device to keep two moving objects from touching each other.)*

Academic Contexts and Connections:

*
Colorado Essential Skills and Science and Engineering Practices:
*

- Ask questions that can be investigated based on patterns such as cause - and - effect relationships. (Asking Questions and Defining Problems) (Entrepreneurial: Inquiry/Analysis).
- Define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool. (Asking Questions and Defining Problems) (Personal: Personal responsibility).
- Plan and conduct an investigation that control variables and provide evidence to support explanations or design solutions. (Planning and Carrying Out Investigations) (Entrepreneurial: Inquiry/Analysis).

- Students can answer the question: Why are some physical systems more stable than others?
- PS2:B Types of Interactions: Electric and magnetic forces between a pair of objects do not require that the objects be in contact. The sizes of the forces in each situation depend on the properties of the objects and their distances apart and for forces between two magnets on their orientation relative to each other.

- Cause and Effect: Cause and effect relationships are routinely identified, tested and used to explain change.
- Connections to Engineering, Technology and Applications of Science: Interdependence of Science, Engineering and Technology-Scientific discoveries about the natural world can often lead to new and improved technologies, which are developed through the engineering design process.

**Science**

**Third Grade, Standard 2. Life Science**

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- 5. Students can use the full range of science and engineering practices to make sense of natural phenomena and solve problems that require understanding how individual organisms are configured and how these structures function to support life, growth, behavior and reproduction.

1. Organisms have unique and diverse life cycles.

*Students Can:*

- Develop models to describe that organisms have unique and diverse life cycles but all have in common birth, growth, reproduction and death. (3-LS1-1)
*(Clarification Statement: Changes organisms go through during their life form a pattern.) (Boundary Statement: Limited to those of flowering plants and does not include details of human reproduction.)*

Academic Contexts and Connections:

*
Colorado Essential Skills and Science and Engineering Practices:
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- Develop models to describe phenomena (Developing and Using Models) (Personal: Initiative/Self-direction).

- Students can answer the question: How do the structures of organisms enable life’s functions?
- LS1:B Growth and Development of Organisms: Reproduction is essential to the continued existence of every kind of organism. Plants and animals have unique and diverse life cycles.

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- 6. Students can use the full range of science and engineering practices to make sense of natural phenomena and solve problems that require understanding how living systems interact with the biotic and abiotic environment.

2. Being part of a group helps animals obtain food, defend themselves and cope with changes.

*Students Can:*

- Construct an argument that some animals form groups that help members survive. (3-LS2-1)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

*
Colorado Essential Skills and Science and Engineering Practices:
*

- Construct an argument with evidence, data and/or a model. (Engaging in Argument from Evidence) (Personal: Initiative/Self-direction)

- Students can answer the question: How do organisms interact with the living and nonliving environments to obtain matter and energy?
- LS2:D Social Interactions and Group Behavior: Being part of a group helps animals obtain food, defend themselves and cope with changes. Groups may serve different functions and vary dramatically in size.

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- 7. Students can use the full range of science and engineering practices to make sense of natural phenomena and solve problems that require understanding how genetic and environmental factors influence variation of organisms across generations.

3. Different organisms vary in how they look and function because they have different inherited information; the environment also affects the traits that an organism develops.

*Students Can:*

- Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence that plants and animals have traits inherited from parents and that variation of these traits exists in a group of similar organisms. (3-LS3-1)
*(Clarification Statement: Patterns are the similarities and differences in traits shared between offspring and their parents, or among siblings. Emphasis is on organisms other than humans.) (Boundary Statement: Does not include genetic mechanisms of inheritance and prediction of traits. Assessment is limited to non-human examples.)* - Use evidence to support the explanation that traits can be influenced by the environment. (3-LS3-2)
*(Clarification Statement: Examples of the environment affecting a trait could that include normally tall plants grown with insufficient water are stunted; and a pet dog that is given too much food and little exercise may become overweight.)*

Academic Contexts and Connections:

*
Colorado Essential Skills and Science and Engineering Practices:
*

- Analyze and interpret data to make sense of phenomena using logical reasoning. (Analyzing and Interpreting Data) (Entrepreneurial: Critical thinking/Problem solving)
- Use evidence (e.g., observations, patterns) to support an explanation. (Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions) (Entrepreneurial: Critical thinking/Problem solving)
- Use of evidence in constructing explanations that specify variables that describe and predict phenomena and in designing multiple solutions to design problems. (Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions) (Entrepreneurial: Critical thinking/Problem solving)

- Students can answer the questions: How are the characteristics of one generation related to the previous generation? Why do individuals of the same species vary in how they look, function and behave?
- LS3:A Inheritance of Traits: Many characteristics of organisms are inherited from their parents. Other characteristics result from individuals’ interactions with the environment, which can range from diet to learning. Many characteristics involve both inheritance and environment.
- LS3:B Variation of Traits: Different organisms vary in how they look and function because they have different inherited information. The environment also affects the traits that an organism develops.

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- 7. Students can use the full range of science and engineering practices to make sense of natural phenomena and solve problems that require understanding how genetic and environmental factors influence variation of organisms across generations.

4. Some living organisms resemble organisms that once lived on Earth .

*Students Can:*

- Analyze and interpret data from fossils to provide evidence of the organisms and the environments in which they lived long ago. (3-LS4-1)
*(Clarification Statement: Examples of data could include type, size, and distributions of fossil organisms. Examples of fossils and environments could include marine fossils found on dry land, tropical plant fossils found in Arctic areas and fossils of extinct organisms.) (Boundary Statement: Does not include identification of specific fossils or present plants and animals and is limited to major fossil types and relative ages.)* - Use evidence to construct an explanation for how the variations in characteristics among individuals of the same species may provide advantages in surviving, finding mates and reproducing. (3-LS4-2)
*(Clarification Statement: Examples of cause - and - effect relationships could be that plants that have larger thorns than other plants may be less likely to be eaten by predators; and animals that have better camouflage coloration than other animals may be more likely to survive and therefore more likely to leave offspring.)*

Academic Contexts and Connections:

*
Colorado Essential Skills and Science and Engineering Practices:
*

- Analyze and interpret data to make sense of phenomena using logical reasoning. (Analyzing and Interpreting Data) (Entrepreneurial: Critical thinking/Problem solving).
- Use evidence (e.g., observations, patterns) to construct an explanation. (Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions) (Entrepreneurial: Critical thinking/Problem solving).
- Critiquing the scientific explanations or solutions proposed by peers by citing relevant evidence about the natural and designed world(s). (Engaging in Argument from Evidence) (Entrepreneurial: Critical thinking/Problem solving).

- Students can answer the questions: What evidence shows that different species are related? How does genetic variation among organisms affect survival and reproduction?
- LS4:A Evidence of Common Ancestry and Diversity: Some kinds of plants and animals that once lived on Earth are no longer found anywhere. Fossils provide evidence about the types of organisms that lived long ago and also about the nature of their environments.
- LS4:B Natural Selection: Sometimes the differences in characteristics between individuals of the same species provide advantages in surviving, finding mates and reproducing.

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- 8. Students can use the full range of science and engineering practices to make sense of natural phenomena and solve problems that require understanding how natural selection drives biological evolution accounting for the unity and diversity of organisms.

5. Sometimes differences in characteristics between individuals of the same species provide advantages in survival and reproduction.

*Students Can:*

- Construct an argument with evidence that in a particular habitat some organisms can survive well, some survive less well and some cannot survive at all. (3-LS4-3)
*(Clarification Statement: Examples of evidence could include needs and characteristics of the organisms and habitats involved. The organisms and their habitat make up a system in which the parts depend on each other.)* - Make a claim about the merit of a solution to a problem caused when the environment changes and the types of plants and animals that live there may change. (3-LS4-4)
*(Clarification Statement: Examples of environmental changes could include changes in land characteristics, water distribution, temperature, food and other organisms.) (Boundary Statement: Limited to a single environmental change. Assessment does not include the greenhouse effect or climate change.)*

Academic Contexts and Connections:

*
Colorado Essential Skills and Science and Engineering Practices:
*

- Analyze and interpret data to make sense of phenomena using logical reasoning. (Analyzing and Interpreting Data) (Entrepreneurial: Critical thinking/Problem solving)
- Use evidence to construct an explanation. (Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions) (Personal: Initiative/Self-direction)
- Construct an argument with evidence. (Engaging in Argument from Evidence) (Entrepreneurial: Critical thinking/Problem solving)
- Make a claim about the merit of a solution to a problem by citing relevant evidence about how it meets the criteria and constraints of the problem. (Engaging in Argument from Evidence) (Entrepreneurial: Critical thinking/Problem solving).

- Students can answer the questions: How does the environment influence populations of organisms over multiple generations? What is biodiversity, how do humans affect it, and how does it affect humans?
- LS2.C Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience: When the environment changes in ways that affect a place’s characteristics, temperature or availability of resources, some organisms survive and reproduce, others move to new locations, yet others move into the transformed environment, and some die.
- LS4:C Adaptation: For any particular environment, some kinds of organisms survive well, some survive less well, and some cannot survive at all.
- LS4:D Biodiversity and Humans: Populations live in a variety of habitats, and change in those habitats affects the organisms living there.

**Science**

**Third Grade, Standard 3. Earth and Space Science**

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- 10. Students can use the full range of science and engineering practices to make sense of natural phenomena and solve problems that require understanding how and why Earth is constantly changing.

1. Climate describes patterns of typical weather conditions over different scales and variations; historical weather patterns can be analyzed.

*Students Can:*

- Represent data in tables and graphical displays to describe typical weather conditions expected during a particular season. (3-ESS2-1)
*(Clarification Statement: Examples of data could include average temperature, precipitation, and wind direction. Obtain and combine information to describe climates in different regions of the world.) (Boundary Statement: Graphical displays are limited to pictographs and bar graphs. Does not include climate change.)* - Obtain and combine information to describe climates in different regions of the world. (3-ESS2-2)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

*
Colorado Essential Skills and Science and Engineering Practices:
*

- Represent data in tables and various graphical displays (bar graphs and pictographs) to reveal patterns that indicate relationships. (Analyzing and Interpreting Data) (Entrepreneurial: Critical thinking/Problem solving)
- Obtain and combine information from books and other reliable media to explain phenomena. (Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information) (Professional: Information literacy).

- Students can answer the question: What regulates weather and climate?
- ESS2:D Weather and Climate: Scientists record patterns of the weather across different times and areas so that they can make predictions about what kind of weather might happen next. Climate describes a range of an area's typical weather conditions and the extent to which those conditions vary over years.

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- 10. Students can use the full range of science and engineering practices to make sense of natural phenomena and solve problems that require understanding how and why Earth is constantly changing.

2. A variety of weather hazards result from natural process; humans cannot eliminate weather-related hazards but can reduce their impacts.

*Students Can:*

- Make a claim about the merit of a design solution that reduces the impacts of a weather-related hazard. (3-ESS3-1)
*(Clarification Statement: Examples of design solutions to weather-related hazards could include barriers to prevent flooding, wind resistant roofs and lightning rods.)*

Academic Contexts and Connections:

*
Colorado Essential Skills and Science and Engineering Practices:
*

- Make a claim about the merit of a solution to a problem by citing relevant evidence about how it meets the criteria and constraints of the problem. (Engaging in Argument from Evidence) (Personal: Initiative/Self-direction).

- Students can answer the question: How do natural hazards affect individuals and societies?
- ESS3:B Natural Hazards: A variety of natural hazards result from natural processes. Humans cannot eliminate natural hazards but can take steps to reduce their impacts.

**Mathematics**

**Third Grade, Standard 1. Number and Quantity**

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3.NBT.A. Number & Operations in Base Ten: Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic. A range of algorithms may be used.

*Students Can:*

- Use place value understanding to round whole numbers to the nearest \(10\) or \(100\). (CCSS: 3.NBT.A.1)
- Fluently add and subtract within \(1000\) using strategies and algorithms based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction. (CCSS: 3.NBT.A.2)
- Multiply one-digit whole numbers by multiples of \(10\) in the range \(10\)–\(90\) (e.g., \(9 \times 80\), \(5 \times 60\)) using strategies based on place value and properties of operations. (CCSS: 3.NBT.A.3)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

*
Colorado Essential Skills and Mathematical Practices:
*

- Flexibly exhibit understanding of a variety of strategies when performing multi-digit arithmetic. (Personal Skills: Adaptability/Flexibility)
- Demonstrate place value understanding by precisely referring to digits according to their place value. (MP6)
- Recognize and use place value and properties of operations to structure algorithms and other representations of multi-digit arithmetic. (MP7)

- How is rounding whole numbers to the nearest \(10\) or \(100\) useful?
- Do different strategies for solving lead to different answers when we add or subtract? Why or why not?

- This expectation is in addition to the major work of the grade.
- In Grade 2, students use place value understanding and properties of operations to add and subtract fluently within \(100\).
- This expectation connects to other ideas in Grade 3: (a) an understanding of multiplication, (b) knowing the relationship between multiplication and division, and (c) the concept of area and its relationship to multiplication and division.
- In Grade 4, students generalize place value understanding for multi-digit whole numbers and use that understanding and the properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic.

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- MP2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
- MP3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
- MP7. Look for and make use of structure.

3.NF.A. Number & Operations—Fractions: Develop understanding of fractions as numbers.

*Students Can:*

- Describe a fraction \(\frac{1}{b}\) as the quantity formed by \(1\) part when a whole is partitioned into \(b\) equal parts; understand a fraction \(\frac{a}{b}\) as the quantity formed by \(a\) parts of size \(\frac{1}{b}\). (CCSS: 3.NF.A.1)
- Describe a fraction as a number on the number line; represent fractions on a number line diagram. (CCSS: 3.NF.A.2)
- Represent a fraction \(\frac{1}{b}\) on a number line diagram by defining the interval from \(0\) to \(1\) as the whole and partitioning it into \(b\) equal parts. Recognize that each part has size \(\frac{1}{b}\) and that the endpoint of the part based at \(0\) locates the number \(\frac{1}{b}\) on the number line. (CCSS: 3.NF.A.2.a)
- Represent a fraction \(\frac{a}{b}\) on a number line diagram by marking off \(a\) lengths \(\frac{1}{b}\) from \(0\). Recognize that the resulting interval has size \(\frac{a}{b}\) and that its endpoint locates the number \(\frac{a}{b}\) on the number line. (CCSS: 3.NF.A.2.b)

- Explain equivalence of fractions in special cases, and compare fractions by reasoning about their size. (CCSS: 3.NF.A.3)
- Understand two fractions as equivalent (equal) if they are the same size, or the same point on a number line. (CCSS: 3.NF.A.3.a)
- Recognize and generate simple equivalent fractions, e.g., \(\frac{1}{2} = \frac{2}{4}\), \(\frac{4}{6} = \frac{2}{3}\). Explain why the fractions are equivalent, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. (CCSS: 3.NF.A.3.b)
- Express whole numbers as fractions, and recognize fractions that are equivalent to whole numbers.
*Examples: Express \(3\) in the form \(3 = \frac{3}{1}\); recognize that \(\frac{6}{1} = 6\); locate \(\frac{4}{4}\) and \(1\) at the same point of a number line diagram.*(CCSS: 3.NF.A.3.c) - Compare two fractions with the same numerator or the same denominator by reasoning about their size. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols \(>\), \(=\), or \(<\), and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. (CCSS: 3.NF.A.3.d)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

*
Colorado Essential Skills and Mathematical Practices:
*

- Flexibly describe fractions both as parts of other numbers but also as numbers themselves. (Personal Skills: Adaptability/Flexibility)
- Analyze and use information presented visually (for example, number lines, fraction models, and diagrams representing parts and wholes) that support an understanding of fractions as numbers. (Entrepreneurial Skills: Literacy/Reading)
- Reason about the number line in a new way by understanding and using fractional parts between whole numbers. (MP2)
- Critique the reasoning of others when comparing fractions that may refer to different wholes. (MP3)
- Use the structure of fractions to locate and compare fractions on a number line. (MP7)

- How does the denominator of a unit fraction connect to the number of unit fractions that must be added to make a whole?
- When the numerators of two different fractions are the same, how can the denominators be used to compare them?

- This expectation represents major work of the grade.
- In Grade 2, students (a) relate addition and subtraction to length, (b) measure and estimate lengths in standard units, and (c) reason with shapes and their attributes, including partitioning circles and rectangles into halves, thirds, and fourths.
- In Grade 3, this expectation connects to the solving of problems involving measurement and estimation of intervals of time, liquid volumes, and mass of objects and is further supported by the expectation to represent and interpret data.
- In Grade 4, students build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers and extend their understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering. In Grade 6, students apply and extend previous understandings of numbers (including fractions) to the system of rational numbers.

**Mathematics**

**Third Grade, Standard 2. Algebra and Functions**

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- MP1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
- MP2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
- MP4. Model with mathematics.

3.OA.A. Operations & Algebraic Thinking: Represent and solve problems involving multiplication and division.

*Students Can:*

- Interpret products of whole numbers, e.g., interpret \(5 \times 7\) as the total number of objects in \(5\) groups of \(7\) objects each.
*For example, describe a context in which a total number of objects can be expressed as \(5 \times 7\).*(CCSS: 3.OA.A.1) - Interpret whole-number quotients of whole numbers, e.g., interpret \(56 \div 8\) as the number of objects in each share when \(56\) objects are partitioned equally into \(8\) shares, or as a number of shares when \(56\) objects are partitioned into equal shares of \(8\) objects each.
*For example, describe a context in which a number of shares or a number of groups can be expressed as \(56 \div 8\).*(CCSS: 3.OA.A.2) - Use multiplication and division within \(100\) to solve word problems in situations involving equal groups, arrays, and measurement quantities, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. (see Appendix, Table 2) (CCSS: 3.OA.A.3)
- Determine the unknown whole number in a multiplication or division equation relating three whole numbers.
*For example, determine the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations \(8 \times \mbox{?} = 48\), \(5 =\mbox{_} \div 3\), \(6 \times 6 = \mbox{?}\)*(CCSS: 3.OA.A.4)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

*
Colorado Essential Skills and Mathematical Practices:
*

- Solve problems involving multiples and parts using multiplication and division. (Entrepreneurial Skills: Critical Thinking/Problem Solving)
- Make sense of missing numbers in equations by using the relationship between multiplication and division. (MP1)
- Reason abstractly about numbers of groups and the size of groups to make meaning of the quantities involved in multiplication and division. (MP2)
- Use arrays to represent whole-number multiplication and division problems. (MP4)

- How can an array be decomposed in a way that connects it to known multiplication facts? How can arrays be used to write and solve multiplication problems?
- How can the area and one side of a rectangle be used to write and solve a division problem?
- How could the number of dots in an array be counted without counting them one by one?

- This expectation represents major work of the grade.
- In Grade 2, students work with equal groups of objects to gain foundations for multiplication.
- In Grade 3, this expectation connects to understanding properties of multiplication, the relationship between multiplication and division, and to fluently multiplying and dividing within 100.
- In Grade 4, students (a) use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems, (b) build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers, and (c) solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit. In Grade 5, students apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to multiply and divide fractions.

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- MP3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
- MP6. Attend to precision.
- MP7. Look for and make use of structure.

3.OA.B. Operations & Algebraic Thinking: Apply properties of multiplication and the relationship between multiplication and division.

*Students Can:*

- Apply properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide. (Students need not use formal terms for these properties.)
*Examples: If \(6 \times 4 = 24\) is known, then \(4 \times 6 = 24\) is also known. (Commutative property of multiplication.) \(3 \times 5 \times 2\) can be found by \(3 \times 5 = 15\), then \(15 \times 2 = 30\), or by \(5 \times 2 = 10\), then \(3 \times 10 = 30\). (Associative property of multiplication.) Knowing that \(8 \times 5 = 40\) and \(8 \times 2 = 16\), one can find \(8 \times 7\) as \(8 \times \left(5 + 2\right) = \left(8 \times 5\right) + \left(8 \times 2\right) = 40 + 16 = 56\). (Distributive property.)*(CCSS: 3.OA.B.5) - Interpret division as an unknown-factor problem.
*For example, find \(32 \div 8\) by finding the number that makes \(32\) when multiplied by \(8\).*(CCSS: 3.OA.B.6)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

*
Colorado Essential Skills and Mathematical Practices:
*

- Flexibly work with different but related arrangements of factors and products or dividends, divisors, and quotients. (Personal Skills: Adaptability/Flexibility)
- Use properties of operations to argue for or against the equivalence of different expressions. (MP3)
- Be specific with explanations and symbols when describing operations using multiplication and division. (MP6)
- Use the relationship between multiplication and division to rewrite division problems as multiplication. (MP7)

- What are all of the equations that can be written to represent the relationship between the area of a (specific) rectangle and its side lengths?

- This expectation represents major work of the grade.
- In Grade 2, students work with equal groups of objects to gain foundations for multiplication.
- This expectation connects to other ideas in Grade 3: (a) multiplication and division within \(100\), (b) solving problems involving the four operations and identifying and explaining patterns in arithmetic, (c) understanding properties of multiplication and the relationship between multiplication and division, and (d) understanding concepts of area and the relationship to multiplication and division.
- In Grade 4, students use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic.

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3.OA.C. Operations & Algebraic Thinking: Multiply and divide within 100.

*Students Can:*

- Fluently multiply and divide within \(100\), using strategies such as the relationship between multiplication and division (e.g., knowing that \(8 \times 5 = 40\), one knows \(40 \div 5 = 8\)) or properties of operations. By the end of Grade 3, know from memory all products of two one-digit numbers. (CCSS: 3.OA.C.7)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

*
Colorado Essential Skills and Mathematical Practices:
*

- Efficiently solve multiplication and division problems by using facts committed to memory. (Professional Skills: Task/Time Management)
- Recognize the relationship between skip counting and the solutions to problems involving multiplication and division. (MP7)

- How can I use multiplication facts that I know to solve multiplication problems I do not yet know? (for example, using \(5 \times 4 + 2 \times 4\) to solve \(7 \times 4\))?
- How can I use models and strategies to show what I know about multiplication?

- This expectation represents major work of the grade.
- In Grade 2, students work with equal groups of objects to gain foundations for multiplication.
- In Grade 3, this expectation connects with representing and solving problems involving the four operations.
- In Grade 4, students use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic, solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit, and gain familiarity with factors and multiples.

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- MP3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
- MP4. Model with mathematics.
- MP6. Attend to precision.

3.OA.D. Operations & Algebraic Thinking: Solve problems involving the four operations, and identify and explain patterns in arithmetic.

*Students Can:*

- Solve two-step word problems using the four operations. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding. (This evidence outcome is limited to problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers; students should know how to perform operations in the conventional order of operations when there are no parentheses to specify a particular order.) (CCSS: 3.OA.D.8)
- Identify arithmetic patterns (including patterns in the addition table or multiplication table) and explain them using properties of operations.
*For example, observe that \(4\) times a number is always even, and explain why \(4\) times a number can be decomposed into two equal addends.*(CCSS: 3.OA.D.9)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

*
Colorado Essential Skills and Mathematical Practices:
*

- Solve problems involving the four operations. (Entrepreneurial Skills: Critical Thinking/Problem Solving)
- Explain patterns in arithmetic. (MP3)
- Mathematically model changes in quantities described in real-world contexts using the appropriate numbers, operations, symbols, and letters to represent unknowns. (MP4)
- Complement arithmetic strategies with mental computation and estimation to assess answers for accuracy. (MP6)

- How can a visual model support making sense of and solving word problems?
- How can the patterns in addition and/or multiplication tables help predict probable solutions to a given problem?

- This expectation represents major work of the grade.
- In Grade 2, students represent and solve one- and two-step word problems involving addition and subtraction.
- This expectation connects to several ideas in Grade 3: (a) representing and solving problems involving multiplication and division, (b) multiplying and dividing within \(100\), (c) solving problems involving measurement and estimation of intervals of time, liquid volumes, and masses of objects, and (d) using concepts of area and relating area to multiplication and to addition.
- In Grade 4, students use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems.

**Mathematics**

**Third Grade, Standard 3. Data, Statistics, and Probability**

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- MP1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
- MP4. Model with mathematics.
- MP5. Use appropriate tools strategically.

3.MD.A. Measurement & Data: Solve problems involving measurement and estimation of intervals of time, liquid volumes, and masses of objects.

*Students Can:*

- Tell and write time to the nearest minute and measure time intervals in minutes. Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of time intervals in minutes, e.g., by representing the problem on a number line diagram. (CCSS: 3.MD.A.1)
- Measure and estimate liquid volumes and masses of objects using standard units of grams (g), kilograms (kg), and liters (l). (This excludes compound units such as cm
^{3}and finding the geometric volume of a container.) Add, subtract, multiply, or divide to solve one-step word problems involving masses or volumes that are given in the same units, e.g., by using drawings (such as a beaker with a measurement scale) to represent the problem. (This excludes multiplicative comparison problems, such as problems involving notions of “times as much.” See Appendix, Table 2.) (CCSS: 3.MD.A.2)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

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Colorado Essential Skills and Mathematical Practices:
*

- Use units of measurement appropriate to the type and magnitude of the quantity being measured. (Professional Skills: Information Literacy)
- Make sense of problems involving measurement by building on real-world knowledge of time and objects and an understanding of the relative sizes of units. (MP1)
- Represent problems of time and measurement with equations, drawings, or diagrams. (MP4)
- Use appropriate measures and measurement instruments for the quantities given in a problem. (MP5)

- How can elapsed time be modeled on a number line to support the connection to addition and subtraction?

- This expectation represents major work of the grade.
- In Grade 2, students measure and estimate lengths in standard units and work with time and money.
- In Grade 3, this expectation connects to developing an understanding of fractions as numbers, solving problems involving the four operations, and identifying and explaining patterns in arithmetic.
- In Grade 4, students solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit.

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3.MD.B. Measurement & Data: Represent and interpret data.

*Students Can:*

- Draw a scaled picture graph and a scaled bar graph to represent a data set with several categories. Solve one- and two-step “how many more” and “how many less” problems using information presented in scaled bar graphs.
*For example, draw a bar graph in which each square in the bar graph might represent \(5\) pets.*(CCSS: 3.MD.B.3) - Generate measurement data by measuring lengths using rulers marked with halves and fourths of an inch. Show the data by making a line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off in appropriate units—whole numbers, halves, or quarters. (CCSS: 3.MD.B.4)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

*
Colorado Essential Skills and Mathematical Practices:
*

- Analyze data to distinguish the factual evidence offered, to reason about judgments, to draw conclusions, and to speculate about ideas the data represents. (Entrepreneurial Skills: Literacy/Reading)
- Abstract real-world quantities into scaled graphs. (MP2)
- Model real-world quantities with statistical representations such as bar graphs and line graphs. (MP4)

- How can working with pictures and bar graphs connect mathematics to the world around us?
- How does changing the scale of a bar graph or line plot change the appearance of the data?

- This expectation supports the major work of the grade.
- In Grade 2, students represent and interpret length by measuring objects, make line plots, and use picture and bar graphs to represent categorical data.
- In Grade 3, this expectation supports developing an understanding of fractions as numbers.
- In Grade 4, students represent and interpret data by making line plots representing fractional measurements and solving addition and subtraction problems using information presented in line plots.

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- MP3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
- MP5. Use appropriate tools strategically.
- MP6. Attend to precision.
- MP7. Look for and make use of structure.

3.MD.C. Measurement & Data: Geometric measurement: Use concepts of area and relate area to multiplication and to addition.

*Students Can:*

- Recognize area as an attribute of plane figures and understand concepts of area measurement. (CCSS: 3.MD.C.5)
- A square with side length \(1\) unit, called “a unit square,” is said to have “one square unit” of area, and can be used to measure area. (CCSS: 3.MD.C.5.a)
- A plane figure which can be covered without gaps or overlaps by \(n\) unit squares is said to have an area of \(n\) square units. (CCSS: 3.MD.C.5.b)

- Measure areas by counting unit squares (square cm, square m, square in, square ft, and improvised units). (CCSS: 3.MD.C.6)
- Use concepts of area and relate area to the operations of multiplication and addition. (CCSS: 3.MD.C.7)
- Find the area of a rectangle with whole-number side lengths by tiling it, and show that the area is the same as would be found by multiplying the side lengths. (CCSS: 3.MD.C.7.a)
- Multiply side lengths to find areas of rectangles with whole-number side lengths in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems, and represent whole-number products as rectangular areas in mathematical reasoning. (CCSS: 3.MD.C.7.b)
- Use tiling to show in a concrete case that the area of a rectangle with whole-number side lengths \(a\) and \(b + c\) is the sum of \(a \times b\) and \(a \times c\). Use area models to represent the distributive property in mathematical reasoning. (CCSS: 3.MD.C.7.c)
- Recognize area as additive. Find areas of rectilinear figures by decomposing them into non-overlapping rectangles and adding the areas of the non-overlapping parts, applying this technique to solve real-world problems. (CCSS: 3.MD.C.7.d)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

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Colorado Essential Skills and Mathematical Practices:
*

- Defend calculations of area using multiplication and by tiling the area with square units and comparing the results. (MP3)
- Understand how to use a one-dimensional measurement tool, like a ruler, to make two-dimensional measurements of area. (MP5)
- Be precise by describing area in square rather than linear units. (MP6)
- Use areas of rectangles to exhibit the structure of the distributive property. (MP7)

- Given three pictures of different rectangles with unknown dimensions, how can you determine which rectangle covers the most area?
- How does computing the area of a rectangle relate to closed arrays?
- How can the area of an E-shaped or H-shaped figure be calculated?

- This expectation represents major work of the grade.
- In Grade 2, students measure and estimate lengths in standard units and reason with shapes and their attributes.
- This expectation connects to other ideas in Grade 3: (a) recognizing perimeter as an attribute of plane figures and distinguishing between linear and area measures, (b) applying properties of multiplication and the relationship between multiplication and division, and (c) solving problems involving the four operations and identifying and explaining patterns in arithmetic.
- In Grade 4, students solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurement from a larger unit to a smaller unit. In Grade 5, students relate volume to multiplication and to addition and also extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to multiply and divide fractions.

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- MP1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
- MP4. Model with mathematics.

3.MD.D. Measurement & Data: Geometric measurement: Recognize perimeter as an attribute of plane figures and distinguish between linear and area measures.

*Students Can:*

- Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving perimeters of polygons, including finding the perimeter given the side lengths, finding an unknown side length, and exhibiting rectangles with the same perimeter and different areas or with the same area and different perimeters. (CCSS: 3.MD.D.8)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

*
Colorado Essential Skills and Mathematical Practices:
*

- Make sense of the relationship between area and perimeter by calculating both for rectangles of varying sizes and dimensions. (MP1)
- Model perimeters of objects in the world with polygons and the sum of their side lengths. (MP4)

- What are all the pairs of side lengths that can create a rectangle with the same area, such as \(12\) square units?
- Is it possible for two rectangles to have the same area but different perimeters?
- Is it possible for two rectangles to have the same perimeter but different areas?

- This expectation is in addition to the major work of the grade.
- In Grade 2, students measure and estimate lengths in standard units.
- In Grade 3, this expectation connects to understanding concepts of area, relating area to multiplication and to addition, and solving problems involving the four operations.
- In Grade 4, students solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit.

**Mathematics**

**Third Grade, Standard 4. Geometry**

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- MP2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
- MP3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
- MP7. Look for and make use of structure.

3.G.A. Geometry: Reason with shapes and their attributes.

*Students Can:*

- Explain that shapes in different categories (e.g., rhombuses, rectangles, and others) may share attributes (e.g., having four sides), and that the shared attributes can define a larger category (e.g., quadrilaterals). Recognize rhombuses, rectangles, and squares as examples of quadrilaterals, and draw examples of quadrilaterals that do not belong to any of these subcategories. (CCSS: 3.G.A.1)
- Partition shapes into parts with equal areas. Express the area of each part as a unit fraction of the whole.
*For example, partition a shape into \(4\) parts with equal area, and describe the area of each part as \(\frac{1}{4}\) of the area of the shape.*(CCSS: 3.G.A.2)

Academic Contexts and Connections:

*
Colorado Essential Skills and Mathematical Practices:
*

- Work with others to name and categorize shapes. (Civic/Interpersonal Skills: Collaboration/Teamwork)
- Analyze, compare, and use the properties of geometric shapes to classify them into abstracted categories and describe the similarities and differences between those categories. (MP2)
- Convince others or critique their reasoning when deciding if a shape belongs to certain categories of polygons. (MP3)
- Decompose geometric shapes into polygons of equal area. (MP7)

- Can you draw a quadrilateral that is not a rhombus, rectangle, or square?
- (Given two identical squares) Divide each of these squares into four equal parts, but in different ways. If you compare a part of one with a part of the other, are their areas the same? How do you know?

- This expectation supports the major work of the grade.
- In Grade 2, students reason with shapes and their attributes.
- In Grade 3, this expectation connects to developing an understanding of fractions as numbers.
- In Grade 4, students draw and identify lines and angles and also classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles.

**Social Studies**

**Third Grade, Standard 1. History**

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- 1. Understand the nature of historical knowledge as a process of inquiry that examines and analyzes how history is viewed, constructed, and interpreted.

1. Compare primary and secondary sources when explaining the past.

*Students Can:*

- Compare primary sources with works of fiction about the same topic.
- Use a variety of primary sources such as artifacts, pictures, and documents, to help determine factual information about historical events.
- Compare information from multiple sources recounting the same event.

Academic Contexts and Connections:

- Articulate the most effective kinds of historical sources to access information needed for understanding historic events. (Professional Skills: Information Literacy)
- Ask questions to develop further understanding of reliability of various kinds of historical sources. (Professional Skills: Self-Advocacy)

- How do historical fact, opinion and fiction uniquely influence an individual's understanding of history?
- How do historical thinkers determine the accuracy of history?
- What types of questions do historians ask about the past?
- Why do historians use multiple sources in studying history?

- Historical thinkers use primary sources to distinguish fact from fiction.
- Historical thinkers distinguish fact from fiction when used to make informed decisions. For example: consumers must critically analyze advertisements for facts, and nonfiction writers must verify historical accuracy.
- Historical thinkers compare information provided by different historical sources about the past.
- Historical thinkers infer the intended audience and purpose of a historical source from information within the source itself.
- Historical thinkers use information about a historical source, including the author, date, place of origin, intended audience, and purpose to judge the extent to which the source is useful.
- Historical thinkers make inferences about the intended audience and purpose of a primary source from information within the source itself.

*
Disciplinary, Information, and Media Literacy:
*

- Determine the kinds of sources that will be helpful in answering compelling and supporting questions, taking into consideration the different opinions people have about how to answer the questions.
- Gather relevant information from multiple sources while using the origin, structure, and context to guide the selection.
- Use distinctions between fact and opinion to determine the credibility of multiple sources.
- Distinguish their own point of view from that of the author.
- Compare and contrast the most important points and key details presented in two texts on the same topic.
- Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons.
- Use evidence to develop claims in response to compelling questions.
- Communicate information through the use of technologies.

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- 2. Analyze historical time periods and patterns of continuity and change, through multiple perspectives, within and among cultures and societies.

2. People in the past influence the development and interaction of different communities or regions.

*Students Can:*

- Compare past and present situations and events.
- Give examples of people, events, and developments that brought important changes to a community or region.
- Describe the history, interaction, and contribution of the various peoples and cultures that have lived in or migrated to a community or region and how that migration has influenced change and development.

Academic Contexts and Connections:

- Recognize how members of a community rely on each other and interact to influence the development of their communities. (Civic/Interpersonal Skills: Collaboration/Teamwork)

- How have different groups of people both lived together and interacted with each other in the past?
- What types of questions do people ask to learn about the past?
- How has the region changed and yet remained the same over time?

- Historical thinkers ask questions to guide their research into the past.
- Historical thinkers analyze the interaction, patterns, and contributions of various cultures and groups in the past.
- Historical thinkers use context and information from the past to make connections and inform decisions in the present. For example: the development and traditions of various groups in a region affect the economic development, tourist industry, and cultural makeup of a community.
- Historical thinkers construct explanations using reasoning, correct sequence, examples, and details with relevant information and data.
- Historical thinkers explain probable causes and effects of events and developments.

*
Disciplinary, Information, and Media Literacy:
*

- Compare and contrast the most important points and key details presented in two texts on the same topic.
- Introduce a topic or text, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure that lists reasons.
- Provide reasons that support the opinion.
- Provide a concluding statement or section.
- Introduce a topic and group related information together; include illustrations when useful to aiding comprehension.
- Develop the topic with facts, definitions, and details.
- Conduct short research projects that build knowledge about a topic.
- Determine the kinds of sources that will be helpful in answering compelling and supporting questions, taking into consideration the different opinions people have about how to answer the questions.
- Communicate information through the use of technologies.

**Social Studies**

**Third Grade, Standard 2. Geography**

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- 3. Apply geographic representations and perspectives to analyze human movement, spatial patterns, systems, and the connections and relationships among them.

1. Use geographic tools to develop spatial thinking.

*Students Can:*

- Read and interpret information from geographic tools and formulate geographic questions.
- Locate oceans and continents, major countries, bodies of water, mountains, urban areas, the state of Colorado, and neighboring states on maps.
- Describe the natural and man-made features of a specific area on a map.
- Identify geography-based problems and examine the ways that people have tried to solve them.

Academic Contexts and Connections:

- Articulate the most effective geographic tools to access information needed for developing spatial thinking. (Professional Skills: Information Literacy).

- What questions do geographers ask?
- How does the geography of where we live influence how we live?
- How do physical features provide opportunities and challenges to regions?
- How have the cultural experiences of groups in different regions influenced practices regarding the local environment?

*
Nature and Skills of Geography:
*

- Spatial thinkers use and interpret information from geographic tools to investigate geographic questions.
- Spatial thinkers use geographic tools to answer questions about places and locations such as where to locate a business or park, and how to landscape a yard.
- Spatial thinkers develop the skills to organize and make connections such as reading a map and understanding where you are, where you want to go, and how to get to the destination.
- Geographic thinkers use maps, satellite images, photographs, and other representations to explain relationships between the locations of places and regions and their environmental characteristics.

*
Disciplinary, Information, and Media Literacy:
*

- Use information gained from illustrations such as maps and photographs, as well as the words in a text to demonstrate understanding of the text. For example: where, when, why, and how key events occur.
- Determine the kinds of sources that will be helpful in answering compelling and supporting questions, taking into consideration the different opinions people have about how to answer the questions.
- Find information through the use of technologies.

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- 4. Examine the characteristics of places and regions, and the changing nature among geographic and human interactions.

2. The concept of region is developed through an examination of similarities and differences in places and communities.

*Students Can:*

- Observe and describe the physical, cultural, and human-made characteristics of a local region. For example: the Eastern Plains, San Luis Valley, Pikes Peak, Northwest, Front Range, South Central, Southwest, and Western Slope.
- Identify the factors that make a region unique. For example: cultural diversity, industry and agriculture, and landforms.
- Give examples of places that are similar and different from a local region.
- Characterize regions using different types of features such as physical, political, cultural, urban and rural attributes.

Academic Contexts and Connections:

- Investigate a variety of places and communities and draw conclusions about regions. (Entrepreneurial Skills: Inquiry/Analysis)

- Are regions in the world more similar or different?
- Why do people describe regions using human or physical characteristics?
- What are geographic characteristics of a region?
- How do cultures lead to similarities and differences between regions?

*
Nature and Skills of Geography:
*

- Geographic thinkers analyze connections among places.
- Geographic thinkers compare and contrast characteristics of regions when making decisions and choices such as where to send children to school, what part of town to live in, what type of climate suits personal needs, and what region of a country to visit.
- Geographic thinkers can explain how natural and human-made catastrophic events in one place affect people living in other places.

*
Disciplinary, Information, and Media Literacy:
*

- Use information gained from illustrations such as maps and photographs, as well as the words in a text to demonstrate understanding of the text. For example: where, when, why, and how key events occur.
- Compare and contrast the most important points and key details presented in two texts on the same topic.
- Identify disciplinary concepts and ideas associated with a compelling question that are open to different interpretations.
- Find information through the use of technologies

**Social Studies**

**Third Grade, Standard 3. Economics**

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- 5. Understand the allocation of scarce resources in societies through analysis of individual choice, market interaction, and public policy.

1. Producers and consumers exchange goods and services in different ways.

*Students Can:*

- Describe the difference between producers and consumers and explain how they need each other.
- Describe and give examples of forms of exchange. For example: monetary exchange and barter.
- Describe how the exchange of goods and services between businesses and consumers affects all parties.
- Recognize that different currencies exist and explain the functions of money. For example: medium of exchange, store of value, and measure of value.
- Cite evidence to show how trade benefits individuals, businesses, and communities and increases interdependency.

Academic Contexts and Connections:

- Recognize how members of a community rely on each other through exchanging goods and services, considering personal exchange behaviors. (Civic/Interpersonal Skills: Collaboration/Teamwork)
- Identify and explain the perspectives of all parties participating in an exchange. (Civic/Interpersonal Skills: Global/Cultural Awareness)

- Why do people exchange goods and services?
- What would happen if there was no such item as money?
- What would happen if consumers did not want what a producer made?
- What would the world look like if there was no transportation that could move goods more than 50 miles?

*
Nature and Skills of Economics:
*

- Economic thinkers analyze trade and the use of money.
- Economic thinkers describe and study the importance of exchange in a community.
- Economic thinkers understand that goods and services are exchanged in multiple ways and are a part of everyday life such as purchasing or trading items.
- Economic thinkers realize that production, consumption, and the exchange of goods and services are interconnected in the world. For example: vegetables from California are sold at a Colorado markets and an ice storm in Florida affects orange juice supplies for the world.
- Economic thinkers can explain why people voluntarily exchange goods and services when both parties expect to gain as a result of the trade.
- Economic thinkers understand why people specialize and trade, and how that leads to increased economic interdependence in the world economy.

*
Disciplinary, Information, and Media Literacy:
*

- Describe the relationship between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect.
- Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking clearly at an understandable pace.
- Begin to identify differing perspectives.
- Explain the role of money in making exchange easier.
- Identify examples of the variety of resources that are used to produce goods and services. For example: human capital, physical capital, and natural resources.

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- 6. Apply economic reasoning skills to make informed personal financial decisions (PFL).

2. Create a plan to meet a financial goal (PFL).

*Students Can:*

- Give examples of short-term spending and savings goals.
- Identify jobs that children can do to earn money to reach personal financial goals.
- Differentiate the role of income and expenses when creating a budget.
- Create a plan with specific steps to reach a short-term financial goal.
- Model strategies to achieve a personal financial goal using arithmetic operations.

Academic Contexts and Connections:

- Define the problem (something they want to buy) using a variety of strategies of how to reach their financial goal. (Entrepreneurial Skills: Critical Thinking/Problem Solving)
- Demonstrate flexibility, imagination, and inventiveness in taking on tasks and activities that will help them reach their financial goal. (Entrepreneurial Skills: Informed Risk Taking)
- Set goals and develop strategies to remain focused on learning and reaching their financial goals. (Personal Skills: Perseverance/Resilience)
- Recognize how members of a community rely on each other, considering personal contributions as applicable, when creating and completing a plan to reach a financial goal. (Civic/Interpersonal Skills: Collaboration/Teamwork)
- Demonstrate an understanding of cause and effect related to personal decisions they make regarding reaching a financial goal. (Entrepreneurial Skills: Inquiry/Analysis)
- Articulate task requirements and identify deadlines when developing a plan to meet a financial goal. (Professional Skills: Task/Time Management)

- What would happen if an individual spent all earnings on entertainment?
- Why do individuals give away money?
- Why is personal financial goal setting important?
- How does an individual know when a good short-term goal is well-written?

*
Nature and Skills of Economics:
*

- Financially capable individuals create goals and work toward meeting them.
- Financially capable individuals understand the cost and the accountability associated with borrowing.
- Financially capable individuals understand that personal financial goal setting is a lifelong activity and short-term goal setting is essential to that process. For example: saving for a fish aquarium or skateboard.
- Financially capable individuals understand that an analysis of various options and creating short- and long-term goals for borrowing is a lifelong skill. For example: adults borrow money to buy a car or go on a vacation.

*
Disciplinary, Information, and Media Literacy:
*

- Compare the benefits and costs of individual choices.
- Identify positive and negative incentives that influence the decisions people make.
- Analyze different texts (including experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia texts) to compare and contrast competing theories, points of view, and arguments in the discipline.

**Social Studies**

**Third Grade, Standard 4. Civics**

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- 7. Express an understanding of how civic participation affects policy by applying the rights and responsibilities of a citizen.

1. Respect the views and rights of others.

*Students Can:*

- Identify and apply the elements of civil discourse. For example: listening with respect for understanding and speaking in a respectful manner.
- Identify important personal rights in a democratic society and how they relate to others’ rights.
- Give examples of the relationship between rights and responsibilities.
- Restate the view or opinion of others with their reasoning when it is different from one’s own.

Academic Contexts and Connections:

- Appropriately express one’s own emotions, thoughts, and values and identify how they influence behavior. (Personal Skills: Self-Awareness)
- Regulate reactions to differing perspectives. (Personal Skills: Adaptability/Flexibility)
- Identify and explain a different perspective when exploring events or ideas. (Civic/Interpersonal Skills: Global/Cultural Awareness)
- State a position and reflect on possible objections to assumptions and implications of the position. (Civic/Interpersonal Skills: Character)

- What are the essential elements of compromise that enable conflict to be transformed into agreement?
- Why is personal advocacy important in a community with diverse views?
- What would a community be like if individuals from various groups did not respect each other's rights and views?

- Civic-minded individuals take the opportunity to make positive changes in their community.
- Civic-minded individuals recognize the value of respecting the rights and views of others.
- Civic-minded individuals understand that a respect for the views of others helps to learn and understand various perspectives, thoughts, and cultures. For example: environmentalists, industry, and government work together to solve issues around energy and other resources.
- Civic-minded individuals understand that virtues, such as honesty, mutual respect, cooperation, and attentiveness to multiple perspectives, should be used when they interact with each other on public matters.

*
Disciplinary, Information, and Media Literacy:
*

- Distinguish their own point of view from that of the author of a text.
- Demonstrate positive social and ethical behaviors when using technology and discuss consequences of inappropriate use.
- Use technology resources for problem solving, communication, and illustration of thoughts and ideas.
- Provide opportunities to use technology to research multiple views on issues to better understand the evolution of rights. For example: lawyers research court findings and individuals engage in civic discourse regarding issues of the day through the internet.
- Gather relevant information from multiple sources while using the origin, structure, and context to guide the selection.
- Present a summary of arguments and explanations to others outside the classroom using print and oral technologies.

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- 8. Analyze the origins, structures, and functions of governments to evaluate the impact on citizens and the global society.

2. The origins, structures, and functions of local government.

*Students Can:*

- Identify the origins, structures, and functions of local government.
- Identify and explain the services local governments provide and how those services are funded.
- Identify and explain a variety of roles leaders, citizens, and others play in local government.
- Describe how local government provides opportunities for people to exercise their rights and initiate change.

Academic Contexts and Connections:

- Connect knowledge from personal experiences in schools and communities to civic engagement. (Civic/Interpersonal Skills: Civic Engagement)

- How are local governments and citizens interdependent?
- How do individuals get involved in their local government?
- How do local governments and citizens help each other?
- Why do people create governments?
- How do people, places, and events help us understand the ideals of democratic government?

- Civic-minded individuals are involved in their local government.
- Civic-minded individuals know how personal advocacy and involvement can lead to change in communities.
- Civic-minded individuals have a knowledge of the origins, structures, and functions of local government which enables participation in the democratic process. For example: groups and governments work together to create a safe environment in the community.
- Civic-minded individuals understand the important institutions of their society and the principles that these institutions are intended to reflect.
- Civic-minded individuals use a range of deliberative and democratic procedures to make decisions about and act on civic problems in their classrooms and schools.

*
Disciplinary, Information, and Media Literacy:
*

- Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
- Gather relevant information from multiple sources while using the origin, structure, and context to guide the selection.
- Identify main idea and sequence of events in a social studies context.
- Present information orally and in writing.

**Need Help?** Submit questions or requests for assistance to bruno_j@cde.state.co.us