Current Display Filter: Science - Eighth Grade

 Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) Concepts and skills students master: 1. Identify and calculate the direction and magnitude of forces that act on an object, and explain the results in the object's change of motion Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies Students Can: Predict and evaluate the movement of an object by examining the forces applied to it (DOK 1-2) Use mathematical expressions to describe the movement of an object (DOK 1-2) Develop and design a scientific investigation to collect and analyze speed and acceleration data to determine the net forces acting on a moving object (DOK 2-4) Inquiry Questions: What relationships exists among force, mass, speed, and acceleration? What evidence indicates a force has acted on a system? Is it possible for a force to act on a system without having an effect? Relevance & Application: Engineers take forces into account when designing moving objects such as car tires, roller coasters, and rockets. Vehicles and their propulsion systems are designed by analyzing the forces that act on the vehicle. For example, the designs of propellers and jet engines are based on the aerodynamics of airplanes. Nature Of: Recognize that our current understanding of forces has developed over centuries of studies by many scientists, and that we will continue to refine our understanding of forces through continued scientific investigations and advances in data collection. (DOK 1) Find, evaluate, and select appropriate information from reference books, journals, magazines, online references, and databases to answer scientific questions about motion and acceleration. (DOK 1-2)
 Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) Concepts and skills students master: 2. There are different forms of energy, and those forms of energy can be changed from one form to another - but total energy is conserved Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies Students Can: Gather, analyze, and interpret data to describe the different forms of energy and energy transfer (DOK 1-2) Develop a research-based analysis of different forms of energy and energy transfer (DOK 1-3) Use research-based models to describe energy transfer mechanisms, and predict amounts of energy transferred (DOK 1-2) Inquiry Questions: Which forms of energy can be directly observed, and which forms of energy must be inferred? What evidence supports the existence of potential and kinetic energy? Is there a limit to how many times energy can be transferred? Explain your answer. Relevance & Application: Photos and measurements of accident investigation provide evidence of energy transfers during such events. Kinetic energy often is turned into heat such as when brakes are applied to a vehicle or when space vehicles re-enter Earth's atmosphere. Energy transfers convert electricity to light, heat, or kinetic energy in motors. There are ways of producing electricity using both nonrenewable resources such as such as coal or natural gas and renewable sources such as hydroelectricity or solar, wind, and nuclear power. Nature Of: Share experimental data, and respectfully discuss conflicting results. (DOK 2-3) Recognize and describe the ethical traditions of science: value peer review; truthful reporting of methods and outcomes; making work public; and sharing a lens of professional skepticism when reviewing the work of others. (DOK 1) Use tools to gather, view, analyze, and report results for scientific investigations designed to answer questions about energy transformations. (DOK 1-2)
 Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) Concepts and skills students master: 3. Distinguish between physical and chemical changes, noting that mass is conserved during any change Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies Students Can: Identify the distinguishing characteristics between a chemical and a physical change (DOK 1) Gather, analyze, and interpret data on physical and chemical changes (DOK 1-2) Gather, analyze, and interpret data that show mass is conserved in a given chemical or physical change (DOK 1-2) Identify evidence that suggests that matter is always conserved in physical and chemical changes (DOK 1) Examine, evaluate, question, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media to investigate physical and chemical changes (DOK 1-2) Inquiry Questions: What evidence can indicate whether a change is physical or chemical? Is it easier to observe the conservation of mass in physical or chemical changes? Why? What would happen if mass were not conserved? Relevance & Application: The freezing, thawing, and vaporization of Earth's water provide examples of physical changes. An understanding of chemical changes have resulted in the design various products such as refrigerants in air conditioners and refrigerators. Physical and chemical changes are involved in the collection and refinement of natural resources such as using arsenic in gold mining. Living systems conserve mass when waste products from some organisms are nutrients for others. Nature Of: Evaluate the reproducibility of an experiment, and critically examine conflicts in experimental results. (DOK 2-3) Share experimental data, and respectfully discuss conflicting results emulating the practice of scientists. (DOK 2-3)
 Prepared Graduates: (Click on a Prepared Graduate Competency to View Articulated Expectations) Concepts and skills students master: 4. Recognize that waves such as electromagnetic, sound, seismic, and water have common characteristics and unique properties Evidence Outcomes 21st Century Skill and Readiness Competencies Students Can: Compare and contrast different types of waves (DOK 1-2) Describe for various waves the amplitude, frequency, wavelength, and speed (DOK 1) Describe the relationship between pitch and frequency in sound (DOK 1) Develop and design a scientific investigation regarding absorption, reflection, and refraction of light (DOK 2-4) Inquiry Questions: What are some different ways to describe waves? Relevance & Application: Different vibrations create waves with different characteristics. For example, a vibrating low-pitch guitar string feels different to the touch than a high-pitch guitar string. Dealing with different types of waves presents design challenges. For example, higher frequency waves have shorter wavelengths, which affect ships, buildings, and antenna design. Energy from different types of waves can affect the environment. For example, natural waves cause different beach erosion and boat wakes There are many applications of light and lasers such as using fiber optics in high speed communication and lasers in surgery. Living organisms collect and use light and sound waves - such as for hearing and vision - to gather information about their surroundings. Nature Of: Evaluate models used to explain and predict wave phenomena that cannot be directly measured. (DOK 2-3) Understand that scientists work from the assumption that the universe is a single system in which the basic rules are the same everywhere. For example, the speed of light in a vacuum is constant across space and time. (DOK 1) Select and use technology tools to gather, view, analyze, and report results for scientific investigations about the characteristics and properties of waves. (DOK 1-2)