A claim is an assertion without proof or evidence. Evidence is the support needed to prove a claim. Fourth graders are supporting claims with evidence by relying on reputable information, such as text references, observations, data, and use of strategic tools. This work is a foundation for later work on creating reasoned arguments through the use of logic and critical thinking skills.
Claims and Evidence can connect all 10 content areas as detailed below.
Comprehensive Health and Physical Education
In comprehensive health and physical education, claims and evidence help students take responsibility and control over their health. Students analyze and utilize claims and evidence to make healthy decisions, which can lead to realistic goal setting for health improvements and persuasive refusal skills to avoid unhealthy behaviors. Examining the portrayals of claims and evidence in media and pop culture also aids in healthy decision-making. Utilizing evidence for effective control over one’s health behaviors is a lifelong skill that contributes to overall wellness and achievement.
In dance, claims and evidence are used when evaluating dance. Expressing an opinion or judgment about dance should be based upon artistic knowledge and dance literacy skills. This requires citing specific evidence about the attributes of a dance and creating a claim based on this evidence. Supporting opinions or judgments require a fundamental knowledge of the elements of dance.
Drama and Theatre Arts
In drama and theatre arts, claims and evidence are used to analyze character dynamics and are also used in critiques. This requires knowledge of how to cite evidence and build rationales for opinions and conclusions. For example, when performers and directors make decisions on dramatic portrayals there needs to be a believable basis for those decisions or the portrayal will be weakened.
In mathematics, claims and evidence are used when constructing viable arguments and critiquing the arguments of others. For example, using models to explain the concept of fraction equivalence or illustrate multiplication and division is a way to construct a viable argument using claims and evidence. Fourth graders use claims and evidence to construct arguments about numbers through models.
In music, claims and evidence are the descriptive justifications used to substantiate personal preferences in music. Discriminating between musical and nonmusical factors within one’s personal preference requires a high level of analytical ability. Through the articulation of these factors, one can recognize music with similar features or identify subtle and obvious differences.
Reading, Writing, and Communicating
In reading, writing and communicating, claims and evidence refer to the identification and analysis of opinions or arguments and the information that supports them. In fourth grade, examples include using specific details and inferences from literary and informational texts (including digital sources) and judging the quality of ideas. In addition, students organize and categorize information to write opinion pieces.
In science, claims and evidence refer to the systematic practice of drawing conclusions based on data, in contrast to the practice of choosing data to fit a particular conclusion. All claims in science must be supported by evidence from research. In fourth grade, students learn to evaluate evidence for its completeness and validity and how to draw valid conclusions based on that evidence.
In social studies, claims and evidence refer to the use of sources to demonstrate the veracity of an assertion. In fourth grade, students are using more complexity as they make claims and support them with evidence. Evidence includes everything that is used to determine or demonstrate the truth of an assertion.
In visual arts, claims and evidence are used when forming a judgment or opinion about art. When making a claim in art characteristics and expressive features are used as criteria or evidence to articulate and express differing points of view and inferences. Expressing an opinion or judgment about art should be based upon artistic knowledge and visual literacy skills.
In world languages, claims and evidence includes extracting information from authentic resources to expand awareness about relevant topics. In reading a book or listening to a play about a culture, learners develop evidence about how a culture operates and how events influenced the culture’s development.
Summary Document: All standards pages for claims and evidence