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# Effective Mathematics Teaching Practices

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## Mathematics Teaching Practices

In mathematics, a framework for Best, First Instruction combines the content and skills described by the Colorado Academic Standards for Mathematics, the Colorado Essential Skills, the Standards for Mathematical Practice, and NCTM's essential mathematics teaching practices, described below.

**Effective Mathematics Teaching Practices**

The eight Effective Mathematics Teaching Practices come from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), in a publication called *Principles to Actions: Ensuring Mathematical Success for All* (2014).

**Establish mathematics goals to focus learning**. Effective teaching of mathematics establishes clear goals for the mathematics that students are learning, situates goals within learning progressions, and uses the goals to guide instructional decisions.**Implement tasks that promote reasoning and problem solving**. Effective teaching of mathematics engages students in solving and discussing tasks that promote mathematical reasoning and problem solving and allow multiple entry points and varied solution strategies.**Use and connect mathematical representations**. Effective teaching of mathematics engages students in making connections among mathematical representations to deepen understanding of mathematics concepts and procedures and as tools for problem solving.**Facilitate meaningful mathematical discourse**. Effective teaching of mathematics facilitates discourse among students to build shared understanding of mathematical ideas by analyzing and comparing student approaches and arguments.**Pose purposeful questions**. Effective teaching of mathematics uses purposeful questions to assess and advance students’ reasoning and sense making about important mathematical ideas and relationships.**Build procedural fluency from conceptual understanding**. Effective teaching of mathematics builds fluency with procedures on a foundation of conceptual understanding so that students, over time, become skillful in using procedures flexibly as they solve contextual and mathematical problems.**Support productive struggle in learning mathematics**. Effective teaching of mathematics consistently provides students, individually and collectively, with opportunities and supports to engage in productive struggle as they grapple with mathematical ideas and relationships.**Elicit and use evidence of student thinking**. Effective teaching of mathematics uses evidence of student thinking to assess progress toward mathematical understanding and to adjust instruction continually in ways that support and extend learning.

**Additional Principles to Actions Resources**

NCTM has developed a number of resources to support *Principles to Actions*. NCTM membership is required to access some of the materials, but if you have questions you can contact Raymond Johnson for more information.

- Spanish edition of
*Principles to Actions* *Principles to Actions*Professional Learning Toolkit*Principles to Actions*Reflection Guide*Taking Action: Implementing Effective Mathematics Teaching Practices in K-Grade 5*(book)*Taking Action: Implementing Effective Mathematics Teaching Practices in Grades 6-8*(book)*Taking Action: Implementing Effective Mathematics Teaching Practices in Grades 9-12*(book)*Enhancing Classroom Practice with Research behind Principles to Actions*(book)

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